Thermal energy (how much kinetic energy the substance has) is the kinetic energy possessed by atoms or molecules moving with random motion within
symbol is Q units joules (J).
measure of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules.
SI units are Kelvin (K). common units celsius
kinetic molecular theory (KMT)
states that everything is made of tiny particles atoms or molecules
empty spaces between the particles & distance between particles is large compared to their size.
in constant motion and motion increases with state changes from solid to liquid to gas.
solid are held close together by strong attractive forces; vibrate but cannot move around independently.
liquid are held together more loosely by weaker attractive forces; the particles can move around, colliding into other particles and into the container walls
collisions are perfectly elastic, meaning that particles do not lose kinetic energy by colliding with each other.
If heat is added to a substance, its particles gain energy and move faster.
e.g. applications sidewalks/bridges
conversion kelvin to celsius and vice versa
celsius -> kelvins, +273.15
kelvins -> celsius, -273.15
energyof a system which is the sum of the heat (E), and the pressure-volume product(PV). H = E + PV
system is surrounded by a boundary which separates the system from its surroundings.
state of the system = description of the system in terms of its fundamental properties: temperature, composition, pressure and volume.
change in enthalpy
enthalpy of products – enthalpy of reactants
heat absorbed when the reaction takes place under constant applied pressure.
units are kJ/mol
exothermic reactions, heat is released and ΔH is negative (ΔH < 0).
endothermic reactions heat is absorbed and ΔH is positive (ΔH > 0).
instrument used to study the heat of reaction and the change in enthalpy for reactions with no pressure-volume changes.
substance's specific heat capacity
capacity to absorb or release heat.
-quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1°C.
-symbol is c and units are J/(kg•°C).
-other units used are cal/(g•°C)
4.18 J/(g•°C) or 4.18 kJ/(kg•°C)
Q = mcΔT
Q = amount of heat transferred (in J)
m = mass of substance (in g)
c = specific heat capacity (in J/(g•°C))
ΔT = temperature change (in °C)
= Tfinal - Tinitial
energy required was used to break the bonds which held the ice in a solid state.
ice absorbs energy, and liquefies b/c gains 3 types of energy: translational energy, rotational energy, and vibrational energy.
3 types of kinetic energy (molecular motion)
translational energy is the type of kinetic energy due to the movement of the whole molecule (this movement is short range and erratic among molecules due to the frequency of collisions with other molecules)
Vibrational energy is due to the oscillation
or deformation of the bonds within the molecule.
Rotational energy is due to the entire molecule rotating
if temperature increases in a reaction
= heat was released and the ∆H is negative
energy absorbed is in the form of heat
energy released is in the form of heat
Four Laws of Thermodynamics
1. First law of thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy)
all processes tt happen in an isolated system-> energy of the system = constant.
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another
2. Second law of thermodynamics
heat always flows from hot objects to cold objects, never other way around
Energy cannot be transformed from one form to another without a loss of useful energy.
work in -> work out + heat, more useful energy to less useful energy (usually heat)
3. Third law of thermodynamics
The entropy (a measure of a system's disorder) of a perfect crystal at absolute zero = zero
0Kelvins is the lowest , not actually achievable -273celsius
4. Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Zeroth law fundamental to, and assumed by, the other laws of thermodynamics
if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body -> then all three bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Chemical properties of matter
properties which describe how substance will react or undergo chemical changes.
can vary greatly from one substance to another.
results in the formation of a new substance (or substances) with different physical and chemical properties than the initial substance (or substances)= chemical reaction.
Most chemical reactions take place when particles of reactants collide with enough force to react.
Bonds between atoms are broken and new bonds form between different atoms.
breaking and forming takes place when particles of the original materials collide with one another.
exothermic/endothermic representation w/ q
endothermic: Q on product side
exothermic: Q on reactant side
possible changes during reaction
Physical -change of state
nuclear - a change within the nucleus (protons or neutrons)
spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei accompanied by the emission of particles and/or penetrating rays.
alpha, beta, gamma
alpha: Helium nucleus, 4/2He
gamma: High-energy radiation, this is not a particle but a ray (or electromagnetic radiation)
mass and atomic number notation:
bigger number on top!
can also be called uranium 235, or U-235, if U-236 = isotope, more neutrons
transmutations of the elements themselves
make sure sub/super scripts are equal for conservation o charge
process where heavy nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei
Neutrons and large amounts of energy are released.
process by which light nuclei join to form larger nuclei, releasing tremendous amounts of energy.
powers the massive energy output of the sun as it converts hydrogen and helium to other heavier elements.