a policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
a nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws
generally all rights rooted in the 14th amendment's guarantee of equal protection under the law
those personal freedoms, including freedom of religion and of speech, that are protected for all individual sin a society
racial segregation that occurs because of patterns of racial residence and similar social conditions
de facto segregation
racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies