Biology-Chapter 16

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Biology-Chapter 16
2013-01-23 14:02:34

Microbial Life: Prokaryotes and Protists(Eukaryotes)
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  1. always unicellular
  2. some unicellular and some mulicellular
  3. what prokaryotes are referred to as, means that they cause various diseases in humans, other animals, and plants
  4. guard the body against pathogenic intruders, produce vitamins
    advantages that prokaryotes in/on human body provide
  5. decompose dead organisms, make nitrogen available to plants and other organisms (nitrogen fixing bacteria)
    other advantages prokaryotes provide
  6. some prokaryotes belong to the domain ____, and others to the domain ____
    Bacteria, Archaea
  7. spheres of bacteria, shape of prokaryotes
    coccus (cocci)
  8. clusters of coccus
  9. chains of coccus
  10. rods of bacteria, shape of prokaryotes
    bacillus (bacilli)
  11. spiral, cork-screw of bacteria, shape of prokaryotes
  12. short and rigid spirals
    spirillum (spirilla)
  13. longer, more flexible spirals
    spirochete (spirochetes)
  14. cells with simple cell walls, include thick layer of peptidoglycan, a sugar-polypeptide polymer, also gives a purple color
  15. cells with more complex cell walls, thin layer of peptodoglycan, have lipids bonded to carbohydrates, also gives a pink color
    gram negative
  16. cell wall may be covered by a sticky capsule used to adhere (cling) to various surfaces
    prokaryotic cell walls
  17. many prokaryotes swim by means of long ___, and many also have short hair-like ____ for attaching to surfaces
    flagella, fimriae (prokaryotic cell projections)
  18. prokaryotes' rapid rate of ____ means that a great deal of ____ is occuring. This results in many ____, some of which may lead to adaptations such as resistance to antibiotics
    reproduction, DNA replication, mutations
  19. some ____ (small circular DNA molecules) include various genes that allow prokaryotes to adapt to various environmental conditions, prokaryotes may ____ these genes within and even between species
    plasmids, transfer
  20. under adverse environmental conditions, some prokaryotes form specialized resistant cells called ____ which have a thick protective coat and which become dormant (and resistant to environmental extremes) until conditions improve
  21. sunlight for energy, CO2 for carbon
  22. sunlight for energy, organic compounds for carbon
  23. chemicals for energy, CO2 for carbon
  24. chemicals for energy, organic compounds for carbon
  25. live in very salty bodies of water, environment where archaea are found
    extreme halophiles ("salt lovers")
  26. live in very hot water, environment where archaea are found
    extreme thermophiles ("heat lovers")
  27. live in anaerobic environments (mud at the bottom of swamps) and give off methane gas, environment where archaea are found
    mathanogens (methane producers/generators)
  28. live at all depths of oceans, environment where archaea are found
    where archaea are also found
  29. refers to a diverse group of organisms that are mostly unicellular eukaryotes, found anywhere there is moisture --not plants, animals, or fungi
  30. protists are grouped in kingdom protista, then thought to constitute several kingdoms within the...
    domain eukarya
  31. produce their food by photosynthesis, also called algae
    autotrophic protists
  32. eat bacteria or other protists, informally called protozoans, some are fungus-like and obtain organic molecules by absorption, some are parasites (feed upon a host organism without quickly killing it)
    heterotrophic protists
  33. capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy
    mixotrophs (protists)
  34. chromalveolates, rhizarians, excavates, unikonts, and archaeplastids
    "super groups"--classification of protists