patho exam 2

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patho exam 2
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2013-01-30 15:19:44
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patho exam 2
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  1. avg life of a rbc?
    120 days
  2. aplastic anemia? causes?
    • reduced activity of bone marrow
    • due to toxins, radiation, immune responses
  3. anemia of CRF?
    kidneys not producing erythropoietin.
  4. anemia r/t b12 or folate defeciency
    no folate > disruption of DNA synthesis in bone marrow
  5. pernicious anemia?
    • deficiency of intrinsic factor.
    • decreased IF leads to decreased B12. (no absorption)
    • intrinsic factor made by stomach lining cells
  6. function of intrinsic factor?
    • helps with absorption of vitamin B12.
    • secreted by stomach lining cells
  7. iron defiency anemia
    • most commonly due to GI bleeds or menorrhea in adults
    • children - diet
  8. types of inherited RBC disorders?
    • thalassemia
    • sickle cell anemia
  9. thalassemia?
    • inherited RBC disorder
    • defect in hemoglobin molecules
    • either alpha or beta.
    • alpha - Asians¬†
    • beta - Mediterranean
  10. sickle cell anemia
    • blacks.
    • affects hemoglobin chain
    • causes RBCs to "sickle", hypoxia
    • chronic pain.
  11. heriditary spherocytosis?
    • defective RBC membranes.
    • causes anemia, gallstones, jaundice, etc
  12. how much blood loss can a healthy person tolerate?
    • 10% blood loss (0.5 L)
    • > 10% causes symptoms of anemia
  13. where are clotting factors produced?
    liver
  14. types/causes of hemolytic anemia?
    • ABO or Rh incompatibility
    • drug exposure
  15. overproduction of RBCs, WBCs, platelets. symptoms of HA, fatigue, itching, dizzy, sweaty, weight loss, dyspnea.  HTN, possible thrombi, mucosal hemmorrhage
    polycythemia vera
  16. causes of secondary polycythemia?
    tissue hypoxia due to high altitude or lung disease
  17. relative polycythemia?
    • fluid loss or dec. intake.
    • dehydration
  18. vascular purpura?
    pinpoint petechiae on skin
  19. telangiectasia
    heriditary. abnormal vascular development leads to bleeding in skin or mucous membranes
  20. vitamin K deficiency
    • infancy or acquired.
    • deficient in clotting factors II, VII, IX, X.
    • excess bleeding
  21. hemophilia
    • X-linked recessive inheritance
    • A: VIII
    • B: IX
  22. Von Willebrand disease
    • deficiency of clotting factor VIII
    • platelet dysfunction
  23. disseminated intravascular coagulation
    • syndrome in which clot and bleeding occur simultaneously
    • vessel damage, malignancy, venoms, shock
  24. #1 cause of coronary heart disease?
    atherosclerosis
  25. most heart attacks occur where?
    left ventricular wall
  26. which area of heart requires most oxygen?
    left ventricle
  27. whats CABG?
    • coronary artery bypass graft.
    • new conduit to bypass occlusion
  28. stable angina?
    • intermittent chest pain.
    • brought on by exertion, relieved by rest
    • no permanent damage
  29. MI
    • severe ischemia
    • unrelieved chest pain, N/V, diaphoresis, SOB
  30. what protein markers are elevated after an MI?
    • CK-MB
    • troponin I and T.
  31. what are some compensatory mechanisms after a drop in cardiac output?
    • sympathetic NS
    • increased HR
    • increased contractility
    • increased BP
  32. mitral stenosis?
    • valve doesn't open all the way.
    • less blood flows from LA > LV
    • less available to pump through body
    • backup of blood into atrium, pulm veins, pulm circulation
  33. mitral regurgitation (insufficiency)
    "incompetent" mitral valve
    • valve doesn't close all the way.
    • body gets less blood flow, oxygen
    • blood backs up into LA (due to open valve)
  34. infective endocarditis
    • invasion of endocardium by bacteria
    • bacterial mass is called vegetation
    • vegetation may predispose to emboli
  35. difference between 2 types of valve diseases?
    • failure to open: increased pressure work.
    • failure to close: extra volume work due to backflow
  36. dilated cardiomyopathy?
    • dilation of ventricles
    • impaired contraction.
    • cardiac failure
  37. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    thickened, enlarged ventricle (L or R)
  38. restrictive cardiomyopathy
    • restricted filling room in ventricles.
    • atria usually normal
  39. pericardial effusion
    accumulation of fluid in pericardium
  40. cardiac tamponade
    • pericardial effusion so severe that the pressure restricts filling of ventricles
    • hypotension, decreased heart sounds, dilated neck veins

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