patho exam 2
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avg life of a rbc?
aplastic anemia? causes?
- reduced activity of bone marrow
- due to toxins, radiation, immune responses
anemia of CRF?
kidneys not producing erythropoietin.
anemia r/t b12 or folate defeciency
no folate > disruption of DNA synthesis in bone marrow
- deficiency of intrinsic factor.
- decreased IF leads to decreased B12. (no absorption)
- intrinsic factor made by stomach lining cells
function of intrinsic factor?
- helps with absorption of vitamin B12.
- secreted by stomach lining cells
iron defiency anemia
- most commonly due to GI bleeds or menorrhea in adults
- children - diet
types of inherited RBC disorders?
- sickle cell anemia
- inherited RBC disorder
- defect in hemoglobin molecules
- either alpha or beta.
- alpha - Asians
- beta - Mediterranean
sickle cell anemia
- affects hemoglobin chain
- causes RBCs to "sickle", hypoxia
- chronic pain.
- defective RBC membranes.
- causes anemia, gallstones, jaundice, etc
how much blood loss can a healthy person tolerate?
- 10% blood loss (0.5 L)
- > 10% causes symptoms of anemia
where are clotting factors produced?
types/causes of hemolytic anemia?
- ABO or Rh incompatibility
- drug exposure
overproduction of RBCs, WBCs, platelets. symptoms of HA, fatigue, itching, dizzy, sweaty, weight loss, dyspnea. HTN, possible thrombi, mucosal hemmorrhage
causes of secondary polycythemia?
tissue hypoxia due to high altitude or lung disease
- fluid loss or dec. intake.
pinpoint petechiae on skin
heriditary. abnormal vascular development leads to bleeding in skin or mucous membranes
vitamin K deficiency
- infancy or acquired.
- deficient in clotting factors II, VII, IX, X.
- excess bleeding
- X-linked recessive inheritance
- A: VIII
- B: IX
Von Willebrand disease
- deficiency of clotting factor VIII
- platelet dysfunction
disseminated intravascular coagulation
- syndrome in which clot and bleeding occur simultaneously
- vessel damage, malignancy, venoms, shock
#1 cause of coronary heart disease?
most heart attacks occur where?
left ventricular wall
which area of heart requires most oxygen?
- coronary artery bypass graft.
- new conduit to bypass occlusion
- intermittent chest pain.
- brought on by exertion, relieved by rest
- no permanent damage
- severe ischemia
- unrelieved chest pain, N/V, diaphoresis, SOB
what protein markers are elevated after an MI?
what are some compensatory mechanisms after a drop in cardiac output?
- sympathetic NS
- increased HR
- increased contractility
- increased BP
- valve doesn't open all the way.
- less blood flows from LA > LV
- less available to pump through body
- backup of blood into atrium, pulm veins, pulm circulation
mitral regurgitation (insufficiency)
"incompetent" mitral valve
- valve doesn't close all the way.
- body gets less blood flow, oxygen
- blood backs up into LA (due to open valve)
- invasion of endocardium by bacteria
- bacterial mass is called vegetationvegetation may predispose to emboli
difference between 2 types of valve diseases?
- failure to open: increased pressure work.
- failure to close: extra volume work due to backflow
- dilation of ventricles
- impaired contraction.
- cardiac failure
thickened, enlarged ventricle (L or R)
- restricted filling room in ventricles.
- atria usually normal
accumulation of fluid in pericardium
- pericardial effusion so severe that the pressure restricts filling of ventricles
- hypotension, decreased heart sounds, dilated neck veins
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