Economic Systems & Subsistence Strategies

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gandalfthegrey
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194743
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Economic Systems & Subsistence Strategies
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2013-01-26 03:40:32
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Cultural Anthropology
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Midterm II
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  1. The production, distribution, and consumption of resources is known as ______.
    economics
  2. Define subsistence strategies.
    The method societies use to produce and reproduce.
  3. Hunter & Gatherers/Foraging
  4. Until ______ years ago, all humans were hunters and gatherers.
    10,000
  5. Where do these socities exist today?
    In areas where food production is difficult with simple technology, such as deserts and tropical environments.
  6. Social Structure in Hunting & Gathering Societies
  7. What do egalatarian social relationships lack?
    Differences in social class.
  8. What are differences in prestige based on?
    They are minor-based on age & gender.
  9. What kind of societies do hunter/gatherers live in?
    Band societies.
  10. How many people are there in band societies?
    <100
  11. Those in band societies are related by _____, which are descent relationships between people either biologically or culturally based.
    kinship
  12. Characteristics of Hunters & Gatherers
  13. Hunter/Gatherers have litle to no _______; use ______ tools and technology; no ownership of ______ ______ (aside from ____ tools); no private ownership of _____; and they are highly _____.
    agriculture; simple; private property; work; land; mobile
  14. Although they do not have private ownership of land, they have ____ rights to hunting, fishing, and gathering territories.
    use
  15. Some social relationships are based on fictive kinships, which are social relationships between....?
    people not based on ties of blood or marriage
  16. ____ typically hunt. ____ typically gather.
    Men; Women
  17. What typically contibutes more to diet?
    Women's gathering.
  18. Hunting & gathering can only occur in ____ populations.
    small
  19. What are the methods to keep populations small? (5 methods)
    • Migration
    • Celibacy
    • Abortion
    • Infanticide
    • Nursing infants for long periods of time
  20. The Affluent Society (Sahlins)
  21. Hunters & gatherers had ______ free time and ____ work hours/day than people in more complex societies
    more; less
  22. Optimal Foraging Theory
  23. How do living organism forage to maximize their energy intake per unit of time spent foraging? (Two ways)
    They capture food with the most calories and spend the least amount of energy and time doing so.
  24. What is optimal strategy?
    Hunting and gathering only those foods that bring in the most energy & nutrients.
  25. Theory of Agricultural Regression
  26. What were some cultural groups attempting to escape when they regressed from agricultural production to nomadic existence? (3 reasons)
    • Epidemic diseases
    • Slave raids
    • Colonial warfare
  27. What caused these subsistence strategy outcomes?
    Socio-political forces that were not adaptive responses to natural environments.
  28. Origins of Food & Animal Domestication
  29. Where & when did food & animal domestication probably first occur?
    In the Middle East about 10-12,000 years ago.
  30. What were some of the first domesticated species? (5 examples)
    • Dogs
    • Sheep
    • Goats
    • Wheat
    • Barley
  31. Pastoralism/Herding
  32. Pastoralist/herding societies are societies that rely on ______ _______ (raising livestock), and moving herds in search of pasture and water.
    animal husbandry
  33. Where were these types of societies found? (4 places)
    • Middle East
    • Europe
    • Asia
    • sub-Saharan Africa
  34. The only area of the New World (Americas) where pastoralism existed prior to the European colonization is the _______ region.
    Andean
  35. These societies hunted, gathered, fished, performed minor cultivation, and traded in order to _____ their diet.
    supplement
  36. Define pastoral nomadism.
    The entire group moves with animals throughout the year.
  37. How do they get crops?
    By trading with agriculturalists.
  38. Define transhumance.
    When part of the group moves with herds, but most stay in a home village.
  39. Where did agriculture develop independently? (list 5)
    • Southeast Asia
    • China
    • Mesoamerica
    • Andes
    • Eastern US
  40. Differences between Agriculturalists/Farmers with Hunters & Gatherers
  41. Agriculturalists use land ____, while hunters & gatherers use land _______.
    intensively; extensively
  42. Hunters & gatherers need _____ acres for subsistence, while agriculturalists need ____ acres for subsistence.
    many; few
  43. For ______, inputs are needed, while inputs are not needed for ______.
    agriculturalists; hunters & gatherers
  44. Agriculturalists have a ______ use of resources for subsistence, while hunters & gatherers have a ______ use of resources for subsistence.
    narrowed; diverse
  45. True/False: Farmers work more hours to produce food than do hunters & gatherers. If false, why?
    True.
  46. True/False: Agriculture leads to more animals & plants being consumed by humans. If false, why?
    False. It narrows the human food base.
  47. Horticulture
  48. Define horticulture.
    The use of simple tools to grow crops.
  49. True/False: Fields are permanently cultivated. If false, why?
    False. Fields are not permanently cultivated.
  50. What doe "lie fallow"?
    Fields are not planted or used for years at a time.
  51. Slash-and-burn horticulture:
  52. Where is slash-and-burn horticulture practiced?
    In areas where soil is poor for agricultural purposes.
  53. Describe the cyclical process. (5 steps)
    • 1st: Land cut by hand
    • 2nd: Burned
    • 3rd: Planted by hand
    • 4th: Land fallowed after a few years
    • 5th: Repeat cycle
  54. Intensive Agriculture
  55. What is intensive agriculture?
    The use of animals and mechanical technology.
  56. Animals are used for _______, ______, ______ and _____, while technology is used for _______ new areas.
    transport; planting; harvesting; manure; planting
  57. Characteristics of Intensive Agricultural Societies (List all 4)
    • Permanent, densely populated villages/cities
    • Class systems (social stratification)
    • Ownership of land (land is bought and sold)
    • Private Property (ownership)
  58. Formation of State Societies
  59. What developed with the formation of state societies?
    Intensive agriculture.
  60. What does this lead to?
    The ruling class governing a particular geographic area and representing a particular population.
  61. Agricultural economics are increasingly _______.
    specialized
  62. What is the difference between monoculture and polyculture?
    Monoculture involves planting only once crop on a given piece of land, while polyculture involves planting many.
  63. What is reduced in intensive agricultural economies?
    Ecological diversity.
  64. Industrial Market Economies
  65. This is based on buying and selling of products in ______.
    markets
  66. What are markets based on? (2 things)
    Supply (quantity) and demand (price)
  67. As supply increases, demand _______.
    As supply decreases, demand ________.
    decreases; increases
  68. What is the motive for this?
    Profit.
  69. Define surplus values.
    Labor costs and the cost of materials for production.
  70. In small scale societies, what is the goal of exchange between people?
    Use value.
  71. Alienation in Industrial Economies (Marx)
  72. Define factors of production. Give examples.
    The resources needed to produce goods, services, and information. Examples are land, labor, and capital.
  73. What is meant by alienation when it comes to industrial workers?
    Workers sell their labor for cash and have little investment in the products the produce.

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