Economic Systems & Subsistence Strategies
Card Set Information
Economic Systems & Subsistence Strategies
The production, distribution, and consumption of resources is known as ______.
Define subsistence strategies.
The method societies use to produce and reproduce.
Hunter & Gatherers/Foraging
Until ______ years ago, all humans were hunters and gatherers.
Where do these socities exist today?
In areas where food production is difficult with simple technology, such as deserts and tropical environments.
Social Structure in Hunting & Gathering Societies
What do egalatarian social relationships lack?
Differences in social class.
What are differences in prestige based on?
They are minor-based on age & gender.
What kind of societies do hunter/gatherers live in?
How many people are there in band societies?
Those in band societies are related by _____, which are descent relationships between people either biologically or culturally based.
Characteristics of Hunters & Gatherers
Hunter/Gatherers have litle to no _______; use ______ tools and technology; no ownership of ______ ______ (aside from ____ tools); no private ownership of _____; and they are highly _____.
agriculture; simple; private property; work; land; mobile
Although they do not have private ownership of land, they have ____ rights to hunting, fishing, and gathering territories.
Some social relationships are based on fictive kinships, which are social relationships between....?
people not based on ties of blood or marriage
____ typically hunt. ____ typically gather.
What typically contibutes more to diet?
Hunting & gathering can only occur in ____ populations.
What are the methods to keep populations small? (5 methods)
Nursing infants for long periods of time
The Affluent Society (Sahlins)
Hunters & gatherers had ______ free time and ____ work hours/day than people in more complex societies
Optimal Foraging Theory
How do living organism forage to maximize their energy intake per unit of time spent foraging? (Two ways)
They capture food with the most calories and spend the least amount of energy and time doing so.
What is optimal strategy?
Hunting and gathering only those foods that bring in the most energy & nutrients.
Theory of Agricultural Regression
What were some cultural groups attempting to escape when they regressed from agricultural production to nomadic existence? (3 reasons)
What caused these subsistence strategy outcomes?
Socio-political forces that were not adaptive responses to natural environments.
Origins of Food & Animal Domestication
Where & when did food & animal domestication probably first occur?
In the Middle East about 10-12,000 years ago.
What were some of the first domesticated species? (5 examples)
Pastoralist/herding societies are societies that rely on ______ _______ (raising livestock), and moving herds in search of pasture and water.
Where were these types of societies found? (4 places)
The only area of the New World (Americas) where pastoralism existed prior to the European colonization is the _______ region.
These societies hunted, gathered, fished, performed minor cultivation, and traded in order to _____ their diet.
Define pastoral nomadism.
The entire group moves with animals throughout the year.
How do they get crops?
By trading with agriculturalists.
When part of the group moves with herds, but most stay in a home village.
Where did agriculture develop independently? (list 5)
Differences between Agriculturalists/Farmers with Hunters & Gatherers
Agriculturalists use land ____, while hunters & gatherers use land _______.
Hunters & gatherers need _____ acres for subsistence, while agriculturalists need ____ acres for subsistence.
For ______, inputs are needed, while inputs are not needed for ______.
agriculturalists; hunters & gatherers
Agriculturalists have a ______ use of resources for subsistence, while hunters & gatherers have a ______ use of resources for subsistence.
True/False: Farmers work more hours to produce food than do hunters & gatherers. If false, why?
True/False: Agriculture leads to more animals & plants being consumed by humans. If false, why?
False. It narrows the human food base.
The use of simple tools to grow crops.
True/False: Fields are permanently cultivated. If false, why?
False. Fields are not permanently cultivated.
What doe "lie fallow"?
Fields are not planted or used for years at a time.
Where is slash-and-burn horticulture practiced?
In areas where soil is poor for agricultural purposes.
Describe the cyclical process. (5 steps)
: Land cut by hand
: Planted by hand
: Land fallowed after a few years
: Repeat cycle
What is intensive agriculture?
The use of animals and mechanical technology.
Animals are used for _______, ______, ______ and _____, while technology is used for _______ new areas.
transport; planting; harvesting; manure; planting
Characteristics of Intensive Agricultural Societies
(List all 4)
Permanent, densely populated villages/cities
Class systems (social stratification)
Ownership of land (land is bought and sold)
Private Property (ownership)
Formation of State Societies
What developed with the formation of state societies?
What does this lead to?
The ruling class governing a particular geographic area and representing a particular population.
Agricultural economics are increasingly _______.
What is the difference between monoculture and polyculture?
Monoculture involves planting only once crop on a given piece of land, while polyculture involves planting many.
What is reduced in intensive agricultural economies?
Industrial Market Economies
This is based on buying and selling of products in ______.
What are markets based on? (2 things)
Supply (quantity) and demand (price)
As supply increases, demand _______.
As supply decreases, demand ________.
What is the motive for this?
Define surplus values.
Labor costs and the cost of materials for production.
In small scale societies, what is the goal of exchange between people?
Alienation in Industrial Economies (Marx)
Define factors of production. Give examples.
The resources needed to produce goods, services, and information. Examples are land, labor, and capital.
What is meant by alienation when it comes to industrial workers?
Workers sell their labor for cash and have little investment in the products the produce.