Bio Midterm

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Bio Midterm
2013-01-23 16:23:13
Bio Midterm chapter 50 55

Study guide for bio chapters 50 52 53 54 55
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  1. Abiotic factors
    Nonliving factors in an environment
  2. Autotroph
    an organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organismsor substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from theoxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
  3. Batesian Mimicry
    A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that ispoisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
  4. Mullerian Mimicry
    a mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species
  5. Binary Fission
    the type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughtercell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.
  6. Biological Magnification
    a trophic process in which retained substances become more andmore concentrated with each link in the food chain
  7. BioMass
    the dry weight of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particularhabitat
  8. Biotic Factors
    Pertaining to living factors of an environment (predation, herbivory, etc.)
  9. Carrying Capacity
    the maximum population size that can be supported by the availableresources, symbolized as K
  10. Biomes
    any of the world’s major ecosystems, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment
  11. Clumped
    individuals are aggregated in patches (example: wolves – increases effectiveness ofhunting, spreads the work of protecting and caring for young, helps exclude other individualsfrom their territory)
  12. Density
    the number of individuals per unit area or volume
  13. Ecological Footprint
    a method of using multiple constraints to estimate the human carryingcapacity on Earth by calculating the aggregate land and water area in various ecosystemcategories appropriated by a nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb allthe waste it generates
  14. Eutrophication
    a process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, becomehighly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such asalgae. Cultural eutophication refers to situations where the nutrients added to the water bodyoriginate mainly from human sources, such as agricultural drainage or sewage
  15. GreenHouse Effect
    – the warming of planet Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation ofcarbon dioxide, which absorbs reflected infrared radiation and re-reflects some of it backtoward Earth
  16. Heterotroph
    an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms ortheir by-products
  17. K-Selection
    the concept that in certain (K-selected) populations, life history is centered aroundproducing relatively few offspring that have a good chance of survival
  18. Oligatrophic
    nutrient-poor, oxygen-rich (see book for opposite)
  19. Primary Consumers
    – an herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eatsplants or algae
  20. Primary Producers
    an autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively autotrophsmake up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels
  21. Resource Partitioning
    the division of environmental resources by coexisting species suchthat the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of allcoexisting species
  22. R Selection
    the concept that in certain (r-selected) populations, a high reproductive rate is thechief determinant of life history
  23. Secondary Consumers
    – a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores
  24. Primary Succession
    a type of ecological succession that occurs in a virtually lifeless area, wherethere were originally no organisms and where soil has not yet formed
  25. Secondary Succession
    a type of succession that occurs where an existing community has beencleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact
  26. Trophic Levels
    the different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the routeof energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling
  27. Uniform Spacing
    evenly spaced, may result from direct interactions between individuals in thepopulation. Aggressive interaction may occur between neighbors (example: penguins)
  28. Limiting Factor (nutrient)
    – an element that must be added for production to increase in aparticular area
  29. Aposematic Coloration
    Animals with chemical defenses displaying bright coloration suchas the poison arrow frog
  30. Cryptic coloration
  31. Mutualism
    Both species benefit
  32. Commensalism
    One species benefits, the other is neither harmed nor helped
  33. Dominant Species
    Species most abundant in a community or that have the highest biomass
  34. KeyStone Species
    Not necessarily abundant but exerts strong control on community structures
  35. Disturbance
    Moderate levels of disturbance aid in species diversity, but too high hinder it. Fires allow news species to take hold, e.g.
  36. Succession
    • Primary: When no soil is left behind (glacier, tidal wave), very gradual redevelopment
    • Secondary: Soil is left behind (fire), Area often quickly returns to similar to its original state