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a. __and two sets of __, which surround the __ and __
b. Internal organs: __, which produce both __
and __, and a system of __ and __, which receive and carry __and house the__ and __
- clitoris and vaginal opening
- reproductive hormones
- ducts and chambers
- embryo and fetus
i. Female gonads are a pair of __that flank the __and are held in place in the __cavity by __
Explain the outer layer of the ovaries.
- 1. Outer layer packed with follicles, each consisting of an oocyte, a partially developed egg, surrounded by a group of support cells
- a. The surrounding cells nourish and protect the oocyte during much of the formation and development of an egg
a. Ovaries may have (at birth) 1-2 mil __but only 500 fully mature between __ and __
i. during typical 4-week menstrual cycle, what happens?
- puberty and menopause
- one follicle matures and expels its egg (ovulation)
1. prior to __, cells of follicle produce __
2. after it, the __ grows within the __, forming a mass called the __
- the primary female sex hormone, estradiol
- residual follicular tissue
- corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum do?
a. this secretes additional estradiol and progesterone, which helps maintain the uterine lining during pregnancy
What happens if the egg is not fertilized?
i. if the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates, and a new follicle matures during the next cycle
Explain the oviduct.
i. Oviduct, or fallopian tube, extends from uterus toward each ovary, varying along its length, with inside diameter near uterus being very narrow
i. At __, the egg is released into the abdominal cavity near the opening of the __
1. __on the __ of the duct help collect the egg by doing what?
a. Together with __, the cilia convey the egg down the duct to the __(womb)
- epithelial lining
- drawing fluid from the body cavity into the oviduct
- wavelike contractions of oviduct
Explain the uterus
- i. thick, muscular organ that expands during pregnancy to fit fetus
- 1. Inner lining, the endometrium, is richly supplied with blood vessels
- 2. Neck of uterus, called the cervix, opens into the vagina
Structure of vagina.
muscular but elastic chamber that is the site for insertion of the penis and deposition of sperm during copulation
Function of the vagina
1. Serves as birth canal for birth and opens to outside at the vulva, the collective term for external female genitalia
i. __ (thick, fatty ridges) enclose and protect the rest of the vulva
ii. Vaginal opening and separate opening of the urethra are located within a cavity bordered by a pair of slender skin folds, the __
1. Located at top of labia minora, the clitoris consists of __ supporting a rounded __, or head, covered by a small hood of skin, the __
a. During sexual arousal, the __all engorge with blood and largeà sensitive for stimulation
- erectile tissue
- clitoris, vagina, and labia minora
i. Sexual arousal also induces __ near the vaginal opening to secrete __, facilitating intercourse
- vestibular glands
- lubricating mucus
i. A thin piece of tissue called the __partly covers the vaginal opening in humans at birth and usually until sex or sports ruptures it
a. Mammary Glands
i. Present in both sexes, but produce __only in females
1. (Are/ are not? )part of reproductive system, but are important
ii. Within glands, small sacs of __secrete __, which drain into ducts that open at nipple
- are not
- epithelial tissue
i. Breasts contain __in addition to __
1. Because low level of estradiol in males limits development of fat deposits, male breasts= small
- connective and fatty tissue
- mammary glands