Aging Large Animals by Teeth
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Up to how old can you accurately age horses?
- up to 10 years old
- beyond 10 years, more of a guess
Stalled horses appear _____ than pastured horses of the same age.
Which teeth do we usually use to age horses?
incisors (mostly the lower ones)
Describe deciduous teeth in horses.
shorter, broader, bright white, and have a neck at the gum margin
Eruption of deciduous and permanent _____ are the most accurate predictors in horses.
When do the deciduous incisors erupt in horses?
- DI 1 - eight days
- DI 2 - eight weeks
- DI 3 - eight months
When do the permanent incisors erupt in horses?
- PI 1 - 2 1/2 years
- PI 2 - 3 1/2 years
- PI 3 - 4 1/2 years
Do horses have deciduous canines?
When do the canines of horses erupt?
4 1/2 - 5 1/2 years old
Which horses have canines?
almost exclusively in males
How do we use the cups in horses to predict the age?
disappear at predictable intervals
Which teeth do we look for the cups in horses?
lower incisors most reliable but uppers can be used
When do the cups disappear in horses?
- PI 1 - 6 years
- PI 2 - 7 years
- PI 3 - 8 years
- for lower incisors
- PI 4 - 9 years
- PI 5 - 10 years
- PI 6 - 11 years
- for upper incisors
When do we see dental stars in horses?
after the cups are lost
What do the dental stars look like in horses?
- start as narrow yellow/brown lines near the anterior enamel line
- progress to dark spots in the center
When do the dental stars appear in horses?
- PI 1 - 8 years
- PI 2 - 9 years
- PI 3 - 10 years
Where is the incisive hook and when does it appear?
- appears on posterior aspect of the upper PI 3 at 7 years of age
- often disappears in a couple of years, reappears at 12 - 15 years and disappears again in a couple of years
What is the galvayne's groove? When does it appear?
- a superficial groove on the lateral aspect of the upper PI 3
- begins at gum margin at 10 years, halfway down by 15, all the way down by 20, will recede halfway down by 25, and disappear completely by 30
What is the angle of incidence in horses?
- looking at the profile view of incisors
- starts upright and then slants forward with age
What are some normal occlusion issues with horses?
- hooks on the second premolar and the last molar
- points on the outside aspect of the upper cheek teeth and on the inner aspect of the lower cheek teeth
- parrot mouth (overbite)
- monkey mouth (underbite)
What can cribbing do to the teeth?
cause incisors to wear inappropriately
What is floating?
filing the cheek teeth
When do we float the teeth?
done once a year give or take 6 months
What do we usually have to do to the horses when we float their teeth?
usually requires sedation and the use of a speculum in the mouth
What is the most accurate predictor when aging bovine?
When do the deciduous incisors erupt in bovine?
- DI 1 and 2 are present at birth
- DI 3 is in by one week
- Deciduous canines are in by 2 weeks of age
What is another term for bovine's canine teeth?
When do the permanent incisors of bovine erupt?
- PI 1 in at 1 1/2 - 2 years
- PI 2 in at 2 - 2 1/2 years
- PI 3 in at 3 years
- Permanent canines (PI 4) in at 3 1/2 - 4 years
How do the teeth of bovine wear?
- at 5 years, occlusal surface become level
- at 6 years, PI 1 is level and neck is visible
- at 7 years, PI 2 is level and neck is visible
- at 8 years, PI 3 is level and neck is visible
- > 10 years, popcorn kernel mouth
Ovine/caprine aging of teeth is similar to which species?
When do the deciduous teeth in ovine/caprine erupt?
- DI 1 in by one week
- DI 2 in by 2 weeks
- DI 3 in by 3 weeks
- Deciduous canines in by 4 weeks
When do the permanent teeth in ovine/caprine erupt?
- PI 1 in at 1 - 1 1/2 years
- PI 2 in at 1 1/2 - 2 years
- PI 3 in at 2 1/2 - 3 years
- PC in at 3 - 4 years
When do the deciduous teeth of swine erupt?
- DI 1 in at 2 - 4 weeks
- DI 2 in at 6 - 12 weeks
- DI 3 present at birth
- deciduous canines are present at birth
When do the permanent teeth of swine erupt?
- PI 1 in at 1 year
- PI 2 in at 1 1/2 years
- PI 3 in at 8 - 10 months
- permanent canines occurs at 6 - 10 months
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