Aging Large Animals by Teeth

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
194787
Filename:
Aging Large Animals by Teeth
Updated:
2013-01-23 18:47:29
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Large Animal Two
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Large Animal Two
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  1. Up to how old can you accurately age horses?
    • up to 10 years old
    • beyond 10 years, more of a guess
  2. Stalled horses appear _____ than pastured horses of the same age.
    younger
  3. Which teeth do we usually use to age horses?
    incisors (mostly the lower ones)
  4. Describe deciduous teeth in horses.
    shorter, broader, bright white, and have a neck at the gum margin
  5. Eruption of deciduous and permanent _____ are the most accurate predictors in horses.
    incisors
  6. When do the deciduous incisors erupt in horses?
    • DI 1 - eight days
    • DI 2 - eight weeks
    • DI 3 - eight months
  7. When do the permanent incisors erupt in horses?
    • PI 1 - 2 1/2 years
    • PI 2 - 3 1/2 years
    • PI 3 - 4 1/2 years 
  8. Do horses have deciduous canines?
    no
  9. When do the canines of horses erupt?
    4 1/2 - 5 1/2 years old
  10. Which horses have canines?
    almost exclusively in males
  11. How do we use the cups in horses to predict the age?
    disappear at predictable intervals
  12. Which teeth do we look for the cups in horses?
    lower incisors most reliable but uppers can be used
  13. When do the cups disappear in horses?
    • PI 1 - 6 years
    • PI 2 - 7 years
    • PI 3 - 8 years
    • for lower incisors
    • PI 4 - 9 years
    • PI 5 - 10 years
    • PI 6 - 11 years
    • for upper incisors
  14. When do we see dental stars in horses?
    after the cups are lost
  15. What do the dental stars look like in horses?
    • start as narrow yellow/brown lines near the anterior enamel line
    • progress to dark spots in the center
  16. When do the dental stars appear in horses?
    • PI 1 - 8 years
    • PI 2 - 9 years
    • PI 3 - 10 years
  17. Where is the incisive hook and when does it appear?
    • appears on posterior aspect of the upper PI 3 at 7 years of age
    • often disappears in a couple of years, reappears at 12 - 15 years and disappears again in a couple of years
  18. What is the galvayne's groove?  When does it appear?
    • a superficial groove on the lateral aspect of the upper PI 3
    • begins at gum margin at 10 years, halfway down by 15, all the way down by 20, will recede halfway down by 25, and disappear completely by 30
  19. What is the angle of incidence in horses?
    • looking at the profile view of incisors
    • starts upright and then slants forward with age
  20. What are some normal occlusion issues with horses?
    • hooks on the second premolar and the last molar
    • points on the outside aspect of the upper cheek teeth and on the inner aspect of the lower cheek teeth
    • parrot mouth (overbite)
    • monkey mouth (underbite)
  21. What can cribbing do to the teeth?
    cause incisors to wear inappropriately
  22. What is floating?
    filing the cheek teeth
  23. When do we float the teeth?
    done once a year give or take 6 months
  24. What do we usually have to do to the horses when we float their teeth?
    usually requires sedation and the use of a speculum in the mouth
  25. What is the most accurate predictor when aging bovine?
    eruption patterns 
  26. When do the deciduous incisors erupt in bovine?
    • DI 1 and 2 are present at birth
    • DI 3 is in by one week
    • Deciduous canines are in by 2 weeks of age
  27. What is another term for bovine's canine teeth?
    4th incisor
  28. When do the permanent incisors of bovine erupt?
    • PI 1 in at 1 1/2 - 2 years
    • PI 2 in at 2 - 2 1/2 years
    • PI 3 in at 3 years
    • Permanent canines (PI 4) in at 3 1/2 - 4 years
  29. How do the teeth of bovine wear?
    • at 5 years, occlusal surface become level
    • at 6 years, PI 1 is level and neck is visible
    • at 7 years, PI 2 is level and neck is visible
    • at 8 years, PI 3 is level and neck is visible
    • > 10 years, popcorn kernel mouth
  30. Ovine/caprine aging of teeth is similar to which species?
    bovine
  31. When do the deciduous teeth in ovine/caprine erupt?
    • DI 1 in by one week
    • DI 2 in by 2 weeks
    • DI 3 in by 3 weeks
    • Deciduous canines in by 4 weeks
  32. When do the permanent teeth in ovine/caprine erupt?
    • PI 1 in at 1 - 1 1/2 years
    • PI 2 in at 1 1/2 - 2 years
    • PI 3 in at 2 1/2 - 3 years
    • PC in at 3 - 4 years
  33. When do the deciduous teeth of swine erupt?
    • DI 1 in at 2 - 4 weeks
    • DI 2 in at 6 - 12 weeks
    • DI 3 present at birth
    • deciduous canines are present at birth
  34. When do the permanent teeth of swine erupt?
    • PI 1 in at 1 year
    • PI 2 in at 1 1/2 years
    • PI 3 in at 8 - 10 months
    • permanent canines occurs at 6 - 10 months

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