Large Animal Injection Techniques

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
194797
Filename:
Large Animal Injection Techniques
Updated:
2013-01-23 19:17:15
Tags:
Large Animal Two
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Large Animal
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  1. What is the most painful part of the injection?
    going through the skin
  2. What type of injections are preferred over IM injections?
    SQ
  3. What is the maximum amount of cc per injection site?
    15 - 20 cc (5 - 10 cc in small ruminants and <100# pigs and neonates)
  4. Where do we do SQ injections in cattle?
    front half of lateral neck
  5. What gauge needle do we use when doing SQ injection in cattle?
    14 - 18g
  6. How long should our needle be when doing SQ injections in cattle?
    3/4 - 1 inch
  7. Where do we give SQ injections in goats?
    front half of the lateral neck (lateral neck just in front of shoulder or in triangle over back behind withers)
  8. What gauge needle do we use when doing SQ injections in goats?  How long should our needle be?
    • 18 - 20g
    • 3/4 - 1 inch
  9. Where do we give SQ injections in sheep?
    • use wool free area
    • axilla or flank
    • same as goats if shorn
  10. What gauge needle do we use when doing SQ injections in sheep?  How long should our needle be?
    • 18 - 20g
    • 3/4 - 1 inch
  11. Where do we give SQ injections in pigs?
    • adults:  dorsolateral neck or over ham, large SQ space and can do blindly
    • piglets:  in flank
  12. What gauge needle do we use when doing SQ injections in pigs?  How long should the needle be?
    • 16 - 20 g
    • 3/4 - 1 inch
  13. Where do we give SQ injections in horses?
    • lateral neck in front of shoulder
    • rarely use (most give IM)
  14. What gauge needle do we use when doing SQ injections in horses?  How long should the needle be?
    • 18 - 20 g
    • 3/4 - 1 inch
  15. Which muscles are most often used for IM injections?
    • cervical
    • gluteal
    • hamstring
  16. What is the maximum amount of cc per site for IM injections?
    15 - 20 cc
  17. Always remember, muscle is _____.
    meat
  18. Where do we give IM injections in cattle?
    • neck is preferred
    • gluteals next then hamstrings last
  19. What gauge needle do we use when doing IM injections in cattle?  How long should our needle be?
    • 14 - 18 g
    • 1 - 1 1/2 inch
  20. Where do we give IM injections in small ruminants?
    • neck is preferred but volume dependent
    • gluteals are volume dependent as well
    • often the hamstrings are a necessary evil
  21. What gauge needle do we use for IM injections in small ruminants?  How long should the needle be?
    • 18 - 20 g
    • 1 - 1 1/2 inch
  22. Where do we give IM injections in swine?
    • hamstring is almost your only option and should be avoided
    • large amount of SQ fat often prevents use of other sites
  23. What gauge needle do we use for IM injections in pigs?  How long should the needle be?
    • 16 - 20g
    • 1 - 1 1/2 inch
  24. Where do we give IM injections in horses?
    • neck for smaller amounts
    • gluteals and hamstrings for larger amounts
    • other sites include pectorals and triceps
  25. What gauge needle do we use for IM injections in horses?  How long should the needle be?
    • 16 - 20 g
    • 1 - 1 1/2 inch
  26. What is most often used for IV injections?
    jugular
  27. How do we direct the needle when doing IV injections?
    • direct needle "down" towards the heart
    • blood should be dark red and dripping or lightly pulsing (not bright red and spurting)
    • start at mid neck level with syringe detached if using jugular
  28. What sites can we do IV injections in cattle?  What is the gauge needle and length of needle for each site?
    • jugular:  14 - 18 g, 1 - 1 1/2 inch
    • tail vein:  18 - 20 g, 1 inch
    • other sites:  milk vein or ear vein
  29. What sites can we do IV injections in small ruminants?  What is the gauge needle and length of needle for each site?
    • jugular:  18 - 20 g, 1 - 1 1/2 inch
    • easy to visualize in goats, need to clip fleece in sheep
    • cephalic may be used as well
  30. What sites can we do IV injections in swine?  What is the gauge needle and length of needle for each site?
    • jugular is impossible to visualize
    • blind stick of the cranial vena cava for large sample
    • 20 gauge, 1 1/2 inch for pigs <50#
    • 18 gauge, 4 1/2 inch for adult pigs
    • ear vein used for small samples or administration of meds:  20 - 22 gauge, 3/4 - 1 inch, butterfly catheter commonly used
  31. What sites can we do IV injections in horses?  What is the gauge needle and length of needle used?
    • jugular:  16 - 20 g, 1 - 1 1/2 inch
    • cephalic
    • superficial thoracic vein
  32. Where do we place IV catheters?
    in jugular
  33. What gauge needle and length do we use for IV catheters?
    • 14 - 18 gauge
    • 3 1/2 - 6 inches
  34. How do we direct the needle when placing an IV catheter?
    towards the heart
  35. When do we give subconjunctival injections?
    • used primarily in ruminants for the treatment of pinkeye
    • places high concentrations of drug at site of infections that persists up to 72 hours
  36. How do we give a subconjunctival injection?
    administered as a bleb under bulbar conjunctiva or palpebral conjunctiva
  37. When do we use intraperitoneal injections?
    • most often used in juvenile animals for fluid therapy
    • treatment of milk fever in dairy cows 
  38. What are implants?
    medications placed subcutaneously in the ear
  39. When do we use implants?  Where are they placed?
    • hormonal implants as growth promotants or possible estrus synchronization
    • proper placement on back of ear deep in skin but superficial to cartilage
  40. What are growth promotants?
    • contain hormones such as estradiol, testosterone, progesterone
    • effects last from 2 - 5 months
  41. What are some examples of growth promotants?
    • Ralgro
    • Synovex
    • Compudose
    • Revalor
    • Implus
  42. What are intranasal medications used for?
    respiratory vaccines - induces local antibody production which is protective
  43. When do we do intramammary infusions?
    • may be used for treatment of mastitisor other   indications
    • must distinguish between lactating and dry cow therapies

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