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- Determine how much of an administered dose gets to its sites of action
- This processes can be thought of as the impact of the body on drugs
- There are four major Pharmacokinetic processes: Drug absorption, Drug distribution, Drug metabolism, and Drug excretion.
- Determine the nature and intensity of the response
- Thought of as the impact of drugs on the body
- 1. Drug-receptor interaction- initial step leading to a response is the binding of a drug to its recptor
- 2. Patients functional state- influence pharmacodynamic processes
- 3. Placebo effect- help determine the responses that a drug elicits
- The study of drugs in humans
- Primary interest is the use of drugs to treat patients
Properties of an ideal drug
- Three most important are effectiveness, safety, and selectivity
- Effectiveness- An effective drug is one that elicits the responses for which it is given. The most important property a drug can have
- Safety- safe drug is one that cannot produce harmful effects. There is no such thing as a safe drug
- Selectivity- selective drug is one that elicits only the response for which it is given. There is no such thing as a selective drug; all medications cause side effects
- Reversible Action- it is important that effects be reversible
- Predictability- It would be very helpful it, prior to drug administration, we could know with certainty just how a given patient will respond
- Ease of Administration- an ideal drug should be simple to administer; the route should be convenient, and the number of doses per day should be low
- Freedom from Drug interactions- When a patient is taking two or more drugs, those drugs can interact. These interactions may augment or reduce drug responses
- Low cost- An ideal drug would be easy to afford
- Chemical Stability- some drugs lose effectiveness during storage. Others that may be stable on the shelf can rapidly lose effectiveness when put into solution
- Possession of a simple Generic Name- drugs are usually complex, and hence difficult to remember and pronounce
Because no drug is ideal....
No drug is safe. All drugs produce side effects. Drug responses may be difficult to predict and may be altered by drug interactions. Drugs may be expensive, unstable and hard to administer.
- Collecting baseline data: Needed to evaluate therapeutic responses and adverse effects
- Identifying high-risk patients: Liver and kidney impairment, genetic factors, drug allergies, pregnancy, elderly and pediatric, tools (patient history, physical examination, and laboratory results)
The five rights of drug administration
- give the right drug
- to the right patient
- in the right dose
- by the right route
- at the right time
- The sixth right-right documentation
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