Bio 256 Unit 1b

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  1. Major Elements of the Human Body
    • Carbon (C)- 18%
    • Hydrogen (H)- 10%
    • Oxygen (O)- 65%
    • Nitrogen (N)- 3%
  2. Organic Compounds
    contain carbon, are covalently bounded, and are large
  3. Inorganic Compounds
    • Do not usually contain carbon
    • water, salts, and many acids and bases
  4. Water
    • Universal solvent
    • high thermal stability
    • cohesion
    • adhesion
    • chemical reactivity
  5. Adhesion
    Water is a polar solvent (forms shell around the solute)
  6. cohesion
    polar character makes water molecules attracted to one another by hydrogen bonds, allowing the flow of substances through body tubes
  7. Water chemical Reactivity
    water is important part of hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions
  8. Salts
    • Ionic compounds that hydrolyze in water
    • contain cations and anions
  9. Polymers
    unit molecules in chains
  10. dehydration sythesis
    synthesis of polymers, one unit at a time
  11. hydrolysis
    breaking down macromolecules , one at a time
  12. Carbohydrate
    • Type- polymer
    • unit molecule- sugars
    • elements present- CHO
    • Examples- Starch, cellulose
  13. Proteins
    • Type- polymer
    • unit molecule- amino acids
    • elements present- CHNOS
    • Examples- albumin
  14. Nucleic Acids
    • Type- polymers
    • unit molecule- nucleotides
    • elements present- CHNOP
    • Examples- DNA
  15. Lipids (fats)
    • Type- not polymer
    • unit molecule- numerous
    • elements present- CHO
    • Examples- triglycerides, cholesterol
  16. Carbohydrate function
    supply cellular energy source and dietary fiber
  17. monosaccharides
    simple sugars
  18. disaccharides
    two sugar units
  19. polysaccharides
    polymers of simple sugars
  20. Starch
    • chains with fewer branches of glucose than glycogen
    • plant glucose storage
    • food source
  21. cellulose
    • dietary fiber
    • chains of glucose bound with a different 3D config as compared to glycogen and starch
    • compose plant cell walls
Card Set:
Bio 256 Unit 1b
2013-01-24 20:03:41
Biochemistry Physiology

Biochemistry in Physiology
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