biology 1 finals

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lenkafawkes
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19485
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biology 1 finals
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2010-05-16 16:19:28
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science flash cards for biology 1 final
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  1. way an organsim reacts to an internal condition of the external environment
    behavior
  2. any kind of signal that carries information and can be detected
    stimulus
  3. a specific reaction to a stimulus
    response
  4. a behavior that is known before the animal is ever exposed to a stimulus
    innate behavior
  5. the process of aquring new behavior from experiences
    learning
  6. 4 types of learning
    • habituation
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
    • insight learnng
  7. process wwhere bu an animal learns to ignore a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards or harms the animal
    habituation
  8. an anmal makes a connection between a stimulus and a reward or punishment
    classical conditioning
  9. an animal makes a conection between a certain behavior and a reward or punishment
    operant conditioning
  10. ab animal applies a previously learned behavior to an unlearned situation
    insight learning
  11. the young of certain species will learn to recognize and follow the first moving object they come in contact with
    imprinting
  12. the passing of imformation from one organism to another
    communication
  13. 4 kinds of communication
    • visual
    • chemical
    • sound
    • language(only used naturaly by humans)
  14. small organelles fileld with enzymes. they break down oe digest lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, into small molecules that can be used bt the rest of the cell.
    lysomes
  15. sac like structeres that store materials such as ,water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
    vacuoles
  16. organelles that conver the chemical energy in food into compounds that are more convienient for the cell to use
    mitochondria
  17. organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and conert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
    chloroplast
  18. a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. the ________ is also involved in movement
    cytoskeleton
  19. structures that are in eukaryotic cells that act as specialized organs
    organelle
  20. portion of cell outsiude nucleus
    cytoplasm
  21. where th assembly of ribosomes begines
    nucleus
  22. threadlike structures that contains genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
    chromasomes
  23. dna bound to protein most og the time ______ is spread throughout the nucleus when a cell divides however ______ cindenses to form chromasomes
    chromatin
  24. small particles of rna and protein found through out the cytoplasm
    ribosomes
  25. the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
    endoplasmic reticulum
  26. modifies sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage i the cell or secretion outside the cell
    golgi reticulum
  27. sereies of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
    cell cycle
  28. period of the cell cycle between divisions
    interphase
  29. part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
    mitosis
  30. first and longest phase of mitosis -chromasomes become visible and the centrioles separate
    prophase
  31. 2nd phase of mitosis
    metaphase
  32. 3rd phase of mitosis
    anaphase
  33. 4th phase of mitosis
    telophase
  34. divisuion of the cytoplasm during the cell division
    cytokinesis
  35. scientific study of heredty
    genetics
  36. process in sexual reproduction in whch male and femal reproductive cells join to form new cells
    fertilization
  37. specfic charcateristic that varies from one individual to another
    trait
  38. sequence of dna that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
    genes
  39. one of a number of different forms of a gene
    alleles
  40. special cell involved in sexual reproduction
    gamestes
  41. has two identical alleles for a particular trait
    homozygous
  42. has 2 different alleles for a trait
    heterozygous
  43. physical characteristics of an organism
    phenotype
  44. genetic makeup of an organism
    genotyoe
  45. the trait that appears more often
    dominant allele
  46. the trait that only appears when both alleles are recessive
    recessive allele
  47. one allele isnt completelt dominant over another
    incomplete dominance
  48. both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype
    codominance
  49. when more than two alleles exist in a population
    multiple alleles
  50. traits caused by two or more genes
    polygenic traits
  51. process of reduction division in which the number of chromasomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromasomes in a diploid cell
    meiosis
  52. a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromasomes
    diploid
  53. contains only a single set of chromasomes
    haploid
  54. shows the relative locations of each known genes
    gene map
  55. nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
    DNA
  56. monomers that make up nucloic acid
    nucleoitide
  57. watson and crick's model of dna where two strands were wound atound each other
    double helix
  58. consisit of DNA that is tightly coiled around the proteins called histomes
    chromatin
  59. before a cell divides it duplicates its dna in _______
    replication
  60. the principal enzyme involved in DNA replication
    DNA polymerase
  61. coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell
    genes
  62. RNA mollecules that carry copies of instructions for assembling amino acid
    mRNA
  63. the process in which DNA becomes RNA
    transcription
  64. main enzyme for transcription
    RNA polymerase
  65. sequences of nucleotides in the DNA of eukaryotic genes
    intron
  66. DNA sequences that code for proteins
    Exon
  67. consist of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide
    codon
  68. the decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein)
    translation
  69. charges in genetic materials
    mutation
  70. to study the diversity of life biologist use a clasification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner
    taxonomy
  71. each species is assigned a twopart scientific name
    binomial nomeclature
  72. group or level of orginzation into whic organisms are classified
    taxon
  73. 8 taxons
    dominion,kingdom,phylum,clan,order,family,genus,species
  74. three domains
    eukarya,bacteria,eubacteria
  75. unicellualr organism lacking a nucleus
    prokaryote
  76. organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes, also called a consumer
    heterotrophs
  77. organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds, also called a producer
    autotrophs
  78. type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its dna and divides in half producung two identical daughter cells
    binary fission
  79. form of sexual reproduction in which paramecum and some prokaryote exchange genetic information
    conjugation
  80. particles of nucleic acid, protein and in some cases, lipids.
    virus
  81. viruses that infect bacteria
    bacteriophage
  82. containRNA as their genetic information
    Retrovirus
  83. Disease causing agents
    pathogens
  84. a preparati
  85. n of weakened or killed pathogens
    vaccine
  86. compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacterium
    antibiotcs
  87. any organism that isnt a plant an animal, fungus, a prokaryote
    protist
  88. temporary cytoplasmic projections used for ammoebic movement
    pseudopods
  89. type of locamotion used by amoebas
    amoeboid movement
  90. a small cavty in the cytoplasm that temporarily store food
    food vacuole
  91. fan like projections similar to flagella
    cilia
  92. constitute the population of small photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean
    phytoplankton
  93. obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
    fungi
  94. make up the cell walls of fungi
    chitin
  95. thin filaments that make up multicillular fungi
    hyphae
  96. many hyphae tangled together in a thick mass
    mycelium
  97. produces spores and is found in some fungi like protist
    fruiting body
  98. root-like hyphae that penatrates the surface of an object
    rhizoids
  99. stem-like hyphae that run along the surface of bread
    stolon
  100. asexual process by which yeast increase in number
    budding
  101. symbotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
    lichen

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