Chemisrty

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Chemisrty
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  1. Atom
    The smallest part of an "element" that can exist and retain the properties of that element.
  2. Molecule
    The smallest particle of a "compound" that can exist and retain the properties of that compound.
  3. Matter
    • Anything that has weight and occupies space.
    •                (Matter = Substance)
  4. Radical Group
    A group of elements, bonded together, which behave like a single element in a chemical reaction.
  5. CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER
  6. 1. Element
    A substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means - the basic component of matter.
  7. 2. Compound
    • A substance composed of two or more different elements which are chemically bonded together. These elements have lost their original properties and are chemically combined in specific proportions - they can be decomposed only by chemical means.
  8. 3. Mixture
    A substance composed of two or more substances which are only physically combined. Its components can be separated by simple or mechanical means (no chemical reaction need take place). The components retain their original characteristic properties.
  9. PROPERTIES OF MATTER
  10. 1. Physical Properties
    • Specific physical characteristics of a substance such as state at given temperature, color, odor, taste, density, solubility, boiling point, freezing point, crystalline and amorphous forms. These properties do not involve a change in chemical composition.
    • (Properties which can be observed by your senses or some device)
  11. 2. Chemical Properties
    • Specific behavior of an element or compound as it reacts with other substances. 
    • Example: Oxygen supports combustion whereas nitrogen does not; coal burns; iron rusts; whereas gold does not. Also, it refers to the reactivity or inertness (non-reactivity)
  12. CHANGES IN MATTER
  13. 1.Physical Change 
    • A change in the form or state of a substance without a change in chemical composition. only the physical properties are altered.
    • Examples: Boiling water change H2O from the liquid to the gaseous state--No new substance has been formed. The formula remains H2O. It can also refer to the change of shape of a substance, such as shattering glass. (See diagrams of states of matter on next three slides)
  14. Solids- Have both definite shape and a definite volume. The molecules have a specific pattern in their structure, and the bonds (forces of attraction) are very strong between these molecules.
    • Have definite shape and volume.
    • Have very organized particles.
    • Have a very strong attraction between the particles.
  15. Liquids- Have a definite volume but no definite shape. A liquid takes the shape of its container. The molecules have no specific pattern and the bonding forces are moderate and randomly distributed (this gives a liquid its ability to pour). The molecules are constantly in motion. 
    • Have definite volume but no definite shape.
    • Take the shape of their container.
    • Have random motion of their particles.
    • Have different viscosity.
    • Have surface tension.
  16. Gases-Have neither a definite shape or volume. The molecules are randomly distributed and have a very weak bonds which causes them to diffuse if energy is applied. The molecules are constantly in motion.
    • Have no definite shape or volume.
    • Have very weak or no attraction between particles.
    • Particles bounce off of each other and the sides of the container.
    • Particles diffuse readily with other gases.
    • Particles never settle or stop.
    • Particles of gases can be compressed because there is air space between them. 
    • Gas particles move continuously. 
    • Gas particles are extremely tiny and distances between them are large.
    • When gas particles collide with each other, or with the walls of the container, no energy is lost; all collisions are perfectly elastic.
    • The average kinetic energy is the same for all gases at the same temperature.
    • Gases have low densities compared to liquids or solids 
    • Gas pressure is exerted equally in all directions
    • Gases expand to fill the entire volume of the container
  17. THE FOUR FAMILIES/GROUPS
  18. Alkali MetalsA group I element (except hydrogen) in the periodic table.
    (Li) Lithium

    (Na) Sodium

    (K) Potassium

    (Rb) Rubidium

    (Cs) Cesium

    (Fr) Francium
  19. Alkaline Earth Metals- An element in Group IIA of the periodic table.
    (Be) Beryllium

    • (Mg) Magnesium
    • (Ca) Calcium 

    (Sr) Strontium

    (Ba) Barium

    (Ra) Radium
  20. Halogen Family- Elements in Group VIIA of the periodic table.
    (F) Fluorine

    (Cl) Chlorine

    (Br) Bromine

    (I) Iodine 
  21. Noble Gasses-Elements in the Right-hand column of the periodic table.
    (He) Helium 

    (Ne) Neon

    (Ar) Argon

    (Kr) Krypton

    (Xe) xenon

    (Rn) Radon
  22. IUPAC
    International union of pure + applied chemistry.
  23. Atomic Mass
    • The weighted average of the atomic masses for the mixture of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. This mass is the one given in the periodic table.
    • The one we always round to the nearest whole #
  24. Atomic #
    • The # of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • (Atomic # = The # of protons)
  25. Interpretation Key
    How we find info on periodic table.
  26. Periodic Law
    The chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic #.
  27. Law of Definite Proportions
    •            "We Choose"
    •               /
    • Every given Compound must have exact ratio of its elements
  28. Law of Conservation of Matter
    Matter can neither be created or destroyed
  29. Kinetic molecular Theory
    How molecules move in a substance.
  30. Viscosity
    Molecular motion that is due to the attraction between molecules of a liquid. 
  31. Diffusion
    The spontaneous mixing of gases at constant pressure.
  32. Diatomic Elements- The seven elements that exist as diatomic molecules, that is, as molecules composed of two atoms. 
                                                           The 7 Elements 

    H2
    (Hydrogen), N2 (Nitrogen), O2 (Oxygen), F2 (Fluorine), Cl2 (Chlorine), Br2 (Bromine), and I2 (Iodine)
  33. Acids i need to Memorize
    (HCl) Hydrochloric 

    (H2SO4Sulfuric 

    (HNO3Nitric 

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