Pharm Unit 2 - Smith

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Pharm Unit 2 - Smith
2013-01-27 18:52:39
Pharm Unit2

By Samantha Smith
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  1. Name sources of drugs and examples
    • Plant - Digoxin, taxol, caffeine, nicotine
    • Animal - Hormones
    • Mineral - Calcium
    • Lab synthesis (genetic engineering) - Procrit, insulin
  2. Therapeutic classification
    • Based on therapeutic use
    • Broadly what the drug does
    • Examples - antimicrobials kill bugs, antihypertensives lower BP
  3. Pharmacological classification
    Based on the mechanism of action - how the drug works or exerts its activity
  4. What are the differences between chemical, generic, and brand/trade names of drugs?
    • Chemical - Very long, complicated
    • Generic - Usually describes the active ingredient
    • Brand/Trade - Assigned by pharmaceutical company marketing the drug
  5. Pharmacokinetics definition
    What the body does to the drug
  6. Pharmacokinetics processes
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
  7. Absorption
    • How fast a drug leaves the site of administration
    • Oral, topical, IV
  8. Bioavailability
    After a drug goes through the process of absorption, the bioavailability is the amount of the drug left available for the body to use
  9. Distribution
    Movement of drug to site of action
  10. Metabolism
    Drug is altered/transformed
  11. Hepatic
    • Primary site for drug metabolism
    • Liver
  12. Excretion
    • Elimination from body
    • Renal - primary site
  13. Rate of excretion
    How fast drug excretiates
  14. Onset
    How long a drug takes to start working
  15. Peak
    Drug level at its maximum
  16. Duration
    How long drug lasts
  17. Half life
    How long it takes for drug concentration to decrease to 1/2
  18. Loading dose
    Larger initial dose needed to get drug concentration up
  19. Maintenance dose
    Amount of drug needed to maintain level of concentration
  20. Serum drug concentration
    Amount of drug in body needed to get therapeutic effect
  21. Pharmacodynamics
    What drug does to body
  22. Dosing
    How much drug needed for therapeudic response
  23. Potency
    • How strong drug is
    • Strong drug --> need less for effect
  24. Efficacy
    How well drug works
  25. Lock and key
    Drug (key) attaches to cell receptor and opens up cell
  26. Agonist
    Produces response just as body would naturally
  27. Partial agonist
    Not as good as an agonist but produces a similar response
  28. Antagonist
    • Opposite response of agonist
    • Lock on and block cell receptor
  29. Idiosyncratic
    Produces unexplained or unexpected response
  30. Pharmacotherapy
    Therapies you can do with drugs
  31. Acute
    Something that comes on abruptly
  32. Empiric
    Make an educated guess and start treatment before it is ordered
  33. Mintenance
    Chronic, ongoing
  34. Palliative
    Provide comfort but not a cure
  35. Prophylactic
    Preventative (vaccine)
  36. Therapeutic response
    Response you wanted for patient
  37. Side effect
    Tolerable effects of drugĀ 
  38. Adverse reaction
    • Extended side effect
    • Usually intolerable
  39. Allergic response
    Hypersensitivity response of the immune system
  40. Additive
    • Two drugs with similar actions to achieve one goal
    • Narcotic and tylenol - both used for pain
  41. Synergistic
    • Two drugs, different pathways, same result
    • Hypertensive and diuretic
  42. Incompatibility
    Lethal effects when combined in body
  43. Iatrogenic
    • Response we have caused
    • Risk vs. benefit
    • The drug may cause damage to body but is needed for the survival of patient
  44. Teratogenic
    Causes fetal defects
  45. Carcinogenic
    Cancer causing agents
  46. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    IV nutrition
  47. Obstetrics
    Pregnant, breast feeding
  48. Co-morbidities
    Patient has multiple diseases
  49. Pediatric dosing
    Weight based
  50. Polypharmacy
    • Multiple drugs --> varying drug levels and interactions
    • Requires close monitoring