Biomedical core

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Author:
faulkner116
ID:
194885
Filename:
Biomedical core
Updated:
2013-01-23 23:43:41
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Module12
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Description:
Objective 1-5
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  1. Vertebral Column
    Cervical= neck... 7 cervical vertebrae

    Thorax= chest.... 12 thoracic vertebrae

    Lumbar= loin.... 5 lumbar vertebrae

    Sacral= holy... 5 sacral vertebrae, fused

    Coccyx... several coccygeal vertebrae, fused
  2. The spinal cord is about the diameter of your little finger at its larges (where it connects to the brain) and tapers to a point at its end
    The filum terminale
  3. All information from the brain to the body goes through the spinal cord
    motor
  4. All information from the body to the brain goes through the spinal cord.
    Sensory
  5. Reflex pathways within the
    spinal cord
  6. White matter contains __________ and ________ tracts.
    ascending (sensory); descending (motor)
  7. Gray matter is where
    neural information is processed.
  8. Posterior horn- dorsal horn(gray matter)
    processes sensory information.

    *cell body in posterior root ganglion
  9. Anterior horn- ventral horn(gray matter)
    contains cell bodies of neurons which control the voluntary muscles.

    *motor neuron cell body is a red dot in this schematic
  10. The spinal cord ends in a bundle of nerves called the
    cauda equina- the nerves float in CSF enclosed in a sac of dura and arachnoid
  11. If we introduce a needle into the vertebral column, then the nerve roots float out of the way and we can sample cerebrospinal fluid. (the L3/L4 intervertebral space is the most common location. This is called
    Lumbar puncture or spinal tap
  12. To relieve pain in the lower body anesthetic agent is infected around the nerves as they exit the dural sleeve. Because this goes on top of the dura mater, it is called
    an epidural
  13. The size and shape of the spinal cord changes from superior to inferior
    Cervical is largest, sacral is smallest
  14. Less and less white matter as we descend
    -fewer sensory tracts going up (they haven't "jumped on" yet)

    -fewer motor tracts going down (they've "jumped off" already)
  15. Spinal cord (gray matter, white matter)
    white matter outside

    gray matter inside
  16. Brain (gray matter, white matter)
    white matter inside 

    gray matter outside
  17. Gray matter =
    cell bodies; reception, processing
  18. white matter =
    axons; sent long distances
  19. Dorsal root ganglion
    contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons.

    plural: dorsal root ganglia

    also called posterior root ganglion
  20. Dorsal root
    also called posterior root.

    sensory information
  21. Ventral root
    also called anterior root

    motor information
  22. Spinal nerve
    mixed: both motor and sensory information

    innervates one segment or "slice" of body
  23. Ramus
    nerves connecting spinal nerve to sympathetic ganglion.

    plural:rami
  24. Plexus
    Interconnected nerves that combine and split and recombine lateral to the spinal cord.
  25. When a collection of neuron cell bodies occurs in the peripheral nervous system, it is called
    a ganglion
  26. List the four spinal nerve plexi
    cervical plexus

    brachial plexus

    lumbar plexus

    sacral plexus
  27. Cervical plexus is
    in the neck. It receives nerves from the C1 through C5 spinal cord segments, and gives rise to several important nerves.
  28. What is the most important nerve involved with the cervical plexus?
    phrenic nerve, which innervates the diaphragm and makes breathing possible.
  29. Brachial plexus receives contributions from __-__ and __. Its major exiting nerves are the
    C5-C8 and T1; radial nerve (thumb, nearby structures), the median nerve (middle finger), and ulnar nerve (little finger)
  30. The lumbar plexus is associated with the lumbar spinal cord
    (roots L1-L5) and innervates the upper thigh.
  31. The sacral plexus receives contributions from __-__ and __-__. One huge nerve, the larges in the body, emerges from the sacral plexus: the _____ _____.
    L4-L5 and S1-S5; Sciatic nerve

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