A&P

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Kelseyyy_03
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194907
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A&P
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2013-01-24 01:08:37
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Anatomy physiology
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Test 1 in anatomy
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  1. Anatomy and Physiology 
    Studies the structure of the body parts along with their relationship to one another and concerns the function of the body, how the body parts work, and carry out there life-sustaining activities 
  2. Homeostasis
    The ability of the body to maintain a relativity constant internal environment regardless of the environment changes 
  3. Organ system interrelationships 
    Organ systems cannot work in isolation; they work together cooperatively to promote the well being of the entire body
  4. Homeostatic imbalance 
    Most diseases can be regarded as a result of its disturbance 
  5. Negative feedback mechanisms 
    The output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity 

    occurs in the opposite direction as the initial disturbance 
  6. Positive Feedback mechanism
    • The result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated 
    • occurs in the same direction as the initial disturbance
  7. Anatomical position 
    • Body erect
    • feet slightly apart
    • palms facing forward
  8. Axial division 
    Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk 
  9. Appendicular division 
    Consists of the appendages or limbs which are attached to the body's axis
  10. Sagittal plane
    A vertical plane that divides the body into left and right parts
  11. Midsagittal plane 
    line lies exactly in the midline 
  12. Parasagittal plane
    Offset from the midline 
  13. Frontal plane 
    Lie vertically and divide the body into anterior or posterior 
  14. Transverse plane 
    Runs horizontally from right to left dividing the body into superior or inferior 
  15. Oblique plane
    Any plane not parallel to the above 3 planes
  16. Distal
    • Farther away from the origin
    • only used for arms and legs
  17. Proximal
    Close to the origin if body part 
  18. Medial
    Toward or at midline 
  19. Lateral
    Away from the midline 
  20. Superficial
    Forward or at the body surfaces
  21. Dorsal cavity 
    • Protects the fragile nervous system organs
    • cranial cavity- encases the brain
    • vertebral cavity- encloses the delicate spinal cord
  22. Ventral cavity
    Houses visceral organs
  23. Thoracic cavity
    • Surrounded by muscles and ribs 
    • Mediastinum-trachea, esophagus, and pericardial cavity (heart) 
    • pleural- lungs 
  24. Abdominopelvic cavity
    • Abdominal-stomach, intestines, and liver 
    • pelvic-bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs 
  25. List the body cavities
    Oral, nasal, orbital, synovial (joints in the neck), middle ear (ear drum)
  26. 4 quadrants of the abdominopelvic regions
    • Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
    • left upper quadrant (LUQ)
    • right lower quadrant (RLQ)
    • left lower quadrant (LLQ)
  27. 9 regions of the abdominolpelvic cavity
    • Umbilical region
    • epigastric region
    • hypogastric region
    • right & left iliac region
    • right & left lumbar region
    • right & left hypochondriac regions
  28. Merocrine glands
    • Package their secretions into secretory vesicles and release secretion by exocytosis
    • cell remains intact and not damaged
  29. Holocrine glands
    • Cells accumulate their products within them until they rupture
    • viscous mixture of both cell fragments and the product
    • cells are constantly replaced 
  30. Common characteristics of connective tissue
    • They all arise from mesenchyme
    • degrees of vascularity
    • 3 basic components
    • are separated by non living extracellular matrix
  31. Degrees of vasularity
    • Cartilage is avascular
    • dense connective tissue is poorly vascularized
  32. 3 basic components of connective tissue
    • Cells
    • extracellular matrix (ECM)
    • extracellular protein fibers
  33. Structural elements of CT
    • Cells
    • protein fibers
    • ground substance
  34. 4 main types of tissues
    • Nervous
    • muscle
    • epithelial
    • connective
  35. TissueTusks issue
    Group of cells similar in structure or perform a common/similar function
  36. Epithelial tissue
    Covers the body surfaces, lines the body cavities, and forms the majority of of glans
  37. Cellularity of epithelium
    • Composed almost entirely of tightly packed cells
    • connection between cells:
    • desmosomes
    • tight junctions
    • gap junctions
  38. Desmosomes
    • Anchoring junctions
    • holds cells together in high stress
    • abundant in tissues subjected to mechanical stress
  39. Tight junctions
    • Forms an impermeable junction that encircles the cells
    • prevents molecules from passing through extracellular space between adjacent cells
  40. Gap junctions
    • Communicating junction between adjacent cells
    • cells are chemically connected
  41. Polarity of epithelium
    • Presence of structural and functional differences between the exposed and attached surfaces
    • epithelium has an apical and basal surface
  42. Apical surface
    Exposed either to the external environment or to some other internal body surface 
  43. Basal surface
    Lower side that attaches to the underlying connective tissue
  44. Epithelium attachment to a basement membrane
    • Basal surface attached to the basement membrane 
    • noncellular, adhesive sheet that attaches the epithelium to the underlying connective tissues
    • produced by the basal cells and CT
    • forms a selective molecular barrier between epithelium and CT
  45. Avascular but innervated epithelium
    • All epithelium lack blood vessels
    • epithelium is richly innervated to detect changes in the environment 
  46. Regeneration of epithelium
    • Replacement of destroyed tissues with the same kind of tissues
    • if and when their apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts are destroyed, they reproduce rapidly
    • as long as they receive nutrition they will replace lost cells with cell division
  47. Functions of epithelium 
    • Main functions- forms boundaries between different environments 
    • other functions- protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory reception
  48. Naming epithelium
    Given 2 names... based on the number of layers present (simple, stratified) and the shape of the cells present (squamous, cubodial, or columnar)
  49. Simple epithelium
    • Composed of a single cell layer
    • all cells are in contact with the basement membrane
    • found where stress is minimal
    • functions: diffusion, absorption, secretion, and filtration
  50. Stratified epithelium 
    • Consist of two or more cell layers stacked on top of each other
    • top layer is apical, lower layer is attached to the basement membrane
    • common in high abrasion areas
    • main functions: protection
  51. Squamos cells
    • flat
    • wide
    • irregular in shape
    • nucleus somewhat flattened
  52. Cubodial cells
    • Tall as they are wide
    • not perfect cubes, edges may be round
    • nucleus is spherical and within the center of the cell
  53. Columnar cells
    • Tall and column like
    • nucleus is the oval and usually at the basal side of the cell 
  54. GlandGland consists
    Consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product (secretion) 
  55. What's the only unicellular gland?
    A goblet cell which produces mucous
  56. How are glands classified?
    • By the number of cells (unicellular, multicellular) 
    • site of product release (endocrine, exocrine)
  57. Endocrine glands 
    • Produce hormones 
    • secrete into the bloodstream
    • all multicellular
  58. Exocrine glands
    Composed of a duct and secretory unit, it secretes their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities

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