Biomedical Core

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Biomedical Core
2013-01-24 01:21:03

Objective 6-11
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  1. Sympathetic Nervous System is called the
    "fight or flight" response
  2. In the sympathetic nervous system the preganglionic are _______. While the postganglionic are _______.
    shorter; longer
  3. Each of the autonomic nervous system pathways has two neurons:
    one leading from the CNS to a ganglion (called the preganglionic) and one leading from the ganglion to the organ innervated (postganglionic).

    *These differ in anatomy and neurochemistry
  4. Preganglionic neuron cell bodies are generally found in the
    thoracic levels of spinal cord (some are found as low as L2)

    * Study objective 6 and 7, I have some. It was difficult to put into a question. Just know the process. Price gave us a good side video if you want to check it out.
  5. The sympathetic trucnk gangliacontain
    postganglionic cell bodies for the effector organs of the thorax and abdomen.
  6. The sympathetic nervous system is activated as a ____. All sympathetic nervous system effector organs are ______ __ at the same time.
    unit; turned on
  7. Parasympathetic Nervous System is often called the
    "rest and digest" system
  8. Parasympathetic system is wired differently, and uses
    different neurotransmitters.
  9. We never want to activate the parasympathetic nervous system all at once. The only time this happens is when a person is exposed to
    nerve agent.
  10. In the parasympathetic nervous system, the preganglionic is _______.  While the postganglionic is _______.
    Longer; shorter

    *travels long distances
  11. For effector organs, particularly those of the thorax and abdomen, the preganglionic neuron is found in the _____ _______ inside the brainstem. Their axons form the _____ _____ and the postganglionic neuron is short and found in an _________ _________ which is part of the organ wall.
    vagus nucleus; vagus nerve (CN X); intramural ganglion
  12. Neurons and Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System:

    Sympathetic: preganglionic, postganglionic
    Preganglionic: Cell body in lateral horn of spinal cord; Acetylcholine (ACh)

    Postganglionic: Cell body in sympathetic chain ganglion; Noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE)
  13. Neurons and Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System:

    Parasympathetic: preganglionic, postganglionic
    Preganglionic: Cell body in brain or spinal cord; acetylcholine (ACh)

    Postganglionic: Cell body in intramural ganglion; Acetylcholine (ACh)
  14. In the sympathetic nervous system (blue) the preganglionic neuron is found in the _______ ____ of the spinal cord somewhere between __ and __. Thise neurons release ____________onto postganglionic neurons with _________ _____________ __________ that are located in the  ____________ _____ ______. The post ganglionic neurons, in turn, release _______________ onto the effector organs.
    lateral horn; T1 L2; acetylcholine; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglia; norepinephrine
  15. In the parasympathetic nervous system (red) the preganglionic neuron is found in the _________ or ______ ______ _____. It releases ____________ onto postganglionic cell bodies with ________ ____________ _________ that are found in the ________ _______. These postganglionic neuron release acetylcholine onto the effector organ, which responds via _________ __________ ________.
    brainstem; sacral spinal cord; acetylcholine; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; intramural ganglia; muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  16. Normally, extreme stretch in the bladder activates neurons in the
    sacral spinal cord which cause expulsion of urine.
  17. Imagine Mother Theresa is watching: the reflex arc is still active, but
    voluntary (skeletal) muscle of the urinary sphincter overrides the visceral reflex
  18. Effectors of the Autonomic Nervous System vs Effectors of the Somatic Nervous System.

    Autonomic Nervous System: effector, neurotransmitter receptors, control
    Effector: Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle, glands

    • Neurotransmitter Receptors:
    • Sympathetic: noradrenaline receptors
    • Parasympathetic: muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Control: Involuntary, reflexive, spinal cord and brainstem nuclei
  19. Effectors of the Autonomic Nervous System vs Effectors of the Somatic Nervous System.

    Somatic Nervous System: effector, neurotransmitter receptors, control
    Effector: Skeletal muscle

    Neurotransmitter Receptors: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Control: Voluntary, Planned, cerebral cortex
  20. There are two major sensory pathways in the spinal cord: the _________ ______, also called the spinothalamic tract, that carries pain and temperature information and the ______ _______, which carries light touch, vibration, and proprioception information.
    anterolateral system (ALS); dorsal (posterior) columns (gracile and cuneate fasciculi)
  21. There is one major motor pathway in the spinal cord: the
    lateral corticospinal tract, which carries information from the motor cortex to the alpha motor neurons, which in turn innervate the body's voluntary muscles.
  22. The medulla oblongata is part of the
  23. Centers that control essential body functions are found in the medulla, including (but limited to):
    Control heartbeat; Control respiration; vomiting center
  24. Among the other functions of the medulla are processing:
    pain and temperature information for the face

    taste information

    The medulla also control the tongue
  25. Cerebellum and the pons.
    The pons is part of the brainstem;

    The cerebellum contains motor programs, neuronal circuits that allow us to move without thinking.
  26. About half the cells in the entire CNS are found in the
  27. The most superior part of the brainstem is also its smallest division, the
    midbrain. Among the important function of the midbrain are control of most eye movements and of pupil size.
  28. Another important structure in the midbrain is the __________ _____ which degenerates in Parkinson Disease, causing movement disorders. The fibers from motor cortex to spinal cord pass through the midbrain as the
    substantia nigra;  crus cerebri
  29. There are three parts to the diencephalon
    • epithalamus
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  30. epithalamus is
    the smallest and least important divsion of the diencephalon.

    *The only part of the epithalamus we need to know is the pineal gland, a pea-sized structure that helps regulate daily rhythms of the body.
  31. Thalamus is
    a structure near dead-center in the brain that is about the size and shape of two eggs.

    All sensory and motor information is relayed through the thalamus.

    sort of executive secretary for the brain
  32. Hypothalamus is
    the most essential.

    controls the pituitary, which some people call the master gland of the endocrine system.
  33. The basal nuclei are essential in the control of
    movement and regulation of mood and complex behaviors.