AP PSYCH CHAPTER 8 TERMS

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emilyyx14
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194964
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AP PSYCH CHAPTER 8 TERMS
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2013-01-24 10:55:47
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ap psych
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psych
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  1. the mental activity that is involved in the understanding, processing, and communicating information
    thinking
  2. an object or an act that stands for something else
    symbol
  3. a mental structure used to categorize objects, people, or events, that share similar characteristics
    concept
  4. an original model on which others in the same category are patterned 
    prototype 
  5. a specific procedure that, when used properly and in the right circumstances, will always lead to the solution of a problem
    algorithm
  6. rules of thumb that often, but not always, help us find the solution to a problem
    heuristics
  7. a method that helps us identify our goal, where we are in relation to it, and the direction we must go to move closer to it
    difference reduction
  8. a heuristic device in which a solution to a problem is found by evaluating the difference between the current situations and the goal
    means-end analysis 
  9. when we arrive at the solution to a problem when we have not even been consciously working on the problem we have experienced
    incubation effect 
  10. the tendency to respond to a new problem with an approach that was successfully used with similar problems 
    mental set
  11. the tendency to think of an object as being useful only for the function that the object is usually used for
    functional fixedness 
  12. thinking that is limited to available facts
    convergent thinking 
  13. a thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to a problem
    divergent thinking 
  14. the use of information to reach conclusions 
    reasoning 
  15. the conclusion is true if the premises are true
    deductive reasoning
  16. an idea or statement that provides the basic information that allows us to draw conclusions
    premise
  17. reason from individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion
    inductive reasoning 
  18. the tendency to prove, or confirm hypotheses rather than disprove them
    confirmation bias 
  19. when people make decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appears to represent 
    representative heuristic 
  20. people who make decisions on the basis of information that is available to them in their immediate consciousness
    availability heuristic 
  21. when people make decisions based on certain ideas or standards that they hold, ideas or standards that serve as an anchor for them
    anchoring heuristic 
  22. refers to the way in which wording affects decision making 
    framing effect 
  23. basic sounds of language 
    phonemes
  24. the unit of meaning in a language 
    morphemes 
  25. the way in which words are arranged to make phrases and sentences
    syntax 
  26. the formation of plurals and the past tense of irregular nouns and verbs according to rules of grammar that apply to regular nouns and verbs; characteristic of the speech of young children
    overregularization 
  27. according to Chomsky, the inborn ability of humans to acquire language 
    language acquisition device

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