equil 2

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equil 2
2013-01-24 11:50:54
chem equil

equil 2
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  1. Arrhenius acids
    • acid is a chemical compound which dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+)      
    • corrosive       
    • sour taste (vinegar (acetic acid), lemon juice (citric acid))     
    • good conductor of electricity    
    • reacts with many metals (Mg, Zn, K, Na...) to produce hydrogen gas       
    • reacts with carbonates to produce CO2 gas       
    • makes Litmus paper become red
  2. Arrhenius bases
    • base is a chemical compound which dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH-)  
    • has a soapy/slimy feeling  
    • very corrosive, or caustic (they can burn)      
    • has a bitter taste       
    • good conductor of electricity     
    • reacts with a acids    
    • does not react with metals to form hydrogen
    • makes red litmus paper turn blue
  3. strong vs weak acids/bases
    • Strong acids and bases will ionize completely in a solution. > 99.9%
    • Since acetic acid is a weak acid, it will dissociate very little. < 1.0%
    • poor electricity conductor. 
    • small Ka = weak acid etc
  4. Brønsted-Lowry acids/bases
    • Acids can be defined as being proton donors
    • Bases are proton recipients
    • conjugate base pairs
  5. lewis acids/bases
    • A Lewis acid is defined as an electron-pair acceptor.
    • A Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.
  6. pH scale (power of hydrogen)
    • not based on the exponent (logarithmic) and thus a drop in pH from 4 to 2 
    • is 10x10 =100 x, 2 pH levels
  7. Buffers
    • solution that resists changes in pH and maintains pH levels by taking up or releasing hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions in a solution.
    • made with a weak acid and a soluble salt containing the conjugate base of the weak acid or a weak base and a soluble salt containing the conjugate acid of the weak base.
    • undergoes little change in pH when small quantities of strong acid or base
  8. closed system
    • sealed container
    •  can exchange energy (heat) but not mass with its surroundings
  9. reversible reaction
    reactants form products that, in turn, react together to give the reactants back.