USMLE FA Micro Mnemonics

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USMLE FA Micro Mnemonics
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USMLE FA Micro Mnemonics
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  1. These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color
    Treponema, Rickettsia, Mycobacteria, Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia
  2. =Bugs that don't gram stain
  3. Certain Bugs Can Really Try Patience
    Chlamydia, Borriella , Rickettsiae, Trypanosomes, Plasmodium
  4. =Giemsa staining bugs. (note: most intracellular)
  5. PAS the Sugar
    • PAS staining for Tropheryma whipplei
    • agent of Whipple's disease (pancreatic)
  6. VPN Client
    • Medium for Neisserial growth
    • Vancomycin, Polymyxins, Nystatin to kill competitors
  7. Nagging Pests Must Breath
    Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacteria, Bacillus
  8. Obligate aerobes.
  9. stay inside when it is Really Cold.
    • Rickettsia, Chlamydia
    • (intracellular)
  10. Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY
    Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersina
  11. Facultative Intracellular bugs
  12. SHiNE SKiS
    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae B, Neissera meningitidis, E.coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, group B Strep.
  13. Capsulated bacteria
  14. PLACESS for your CATs
    Pseudomonas, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E.Coli, S.aureus, Serratia
  15. Catalase-positive
  16. CHiPUNKSS
    Cryptococcus, H.pylori, Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Klebsiella, S.epidermidis, S.saprophyticus
  17. Urease-positive bugs
  18. SHiN (first half of SHiNE SKiS)
    Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB, Neisseria
  19. bacteria with IgA protease (enter mucosal surfaces)
  20. Labile in Air, Stable on Ground.
    • Toxins of ETEC:
    • 1. LT-labile toxin, inc cAMP (increases secretion)
    • 2. ST-stable toxin, inc cGMP (decreases absorption)
  21. ENDOTOXIN
    • Edema
    • Nitric oxide
    • DIC/death
    • O-antigen
    • Tnf-a
    • Outer membrane
    • Xtremely heat stable
    • IL-1
    • Neutrophil chemotaxis
  22. SHiN (again)
    Bacteria capable of TRANSFORMATION= taking up naked DNA
  23. S.pneumo, Hib, Neisseria
    • (other uses of SHiN:
    • 1. Encapsulated= SHiNE SKiS
    • 2. IgA proteases= SHiN)
  24. ABCDE
    Genes carried by specialized transduction by LYSOGENIC phages (phages incorporating into host)
  25. shigA-like toxin (EHEC)
    • Botulinum
    • Cholera
    • Diphtheria
    • Erythrogenic (GAS)
  26. STAPH retreat= NO StRES
    Novobiocin: Saprophyticus resistant, Epidermidis sensitive.
  27. Differentiation of Coagulase (-) Staphylococci
  28. OVRPS
    Optochin- Viridans Resistant; Pneumoniae Sensitive
  29. Differentiation of Alpha-hemolytic strep.
  30. B-BRAS
    Bacitracin- group B resistant; group A sensitive
  31. GBS= S.agalactiae
    GAS= S. pyogenes
  32. Differentiates B-hemolytic strep
  33. MOPS
    • Common clinical diseases of Streptococcus pneumonia:
    • Meningitis, Otitis, Pneumonia, Sinusitis
  34. (Remember: Sepsis in SSA and Asplenics)
  35. J<3NES criteria
    • Jones Critera for Rheumatic Fever:
    • Joints
    • <3= carditis
    • Nodules (subcutaneous)
    • Erythema marginatum
    • Sydenham's chorea
  36. ABCDEFG
    • Characteristics of C.diphtheriae:
    • 1. ADP-ribosylation
    • 2. Beta-prophage (encoding toxin)
    • 3. Club shaped
    • 4. DTaP vaccine
    • 5. EF-2 (target of toxin)
    • 6. Granules (stain metachromic)
  37. Lactose is KEE
    • Fast Lactose fermenters
    • Klebsiella, E.coli, Enterobacter
  38. macConKEE'S
    • Lactose fermenters (all):
    • Citrobacter, Klebsiella, E.coli, Enterobacter, Serratia
  39. MeninGococci
    ferment MALTOSE and GLUCOSE
  40. Gonococci
    only ferment GLUCOSE
  41. haEMOPhilus
    • causes:
    • Epiglottitis, Meningitis, Otitis, Pneumonia
    • (worst by capsular B type)
    • (produces IgA proteases)
    • (factors V & X)
  42. french Legionnaire in a Silver helmet sitting around a Charcoal fire with an Iron dagger--no Sissy.
    • Legionella:
    • Silver staining
    • Grow on Charcoal with IRON & CYSTEINE
  43. PSEUDOmonas
    Pneumonia, Sepsis (black lesions), Externa (otitis), Uti, Drugs/ Diabetic Osteomyelitis.
  44. also: hot tub folliculitis, Ox+, Aerobic, grape odor, Exotoxin A (EF-2), Pyocyanin
  45. E.I.E.C
    • I=INVASIVE
    • dysentery from mucosal invasion, no toxins, similar to shigella.
  46. E.T.E.C.
    • T=Traveler's diarrhea
    • LT= cAMP, inc efflux
    • ST= cGMP, dec absorp
  47. E.P.E.C.
    • P=Pediatrics
    • no toxins, adherences to surfaces with flattening of villi.
  48. E.H.E.C.
    • H=Hemolytic uremic syndrome
    • SLT= shiga-like toxin
    • O157:H7
    • HUS= triad of ANEMIA, THROMBOCYTOPENIA, RENAL FAILURE.
    • Dysentery without invasion, non-sorbitol fermenter!
  49. 4A's of Klebsiella
    • Aspiration (pneumonia)
    • Abscess (necrotizing pneumonia & liver)
    • Alcoholics
    • diAbetics
  50. Red currant jelly, nosocomial UTIs
  51. Salmon swim.
    Salmonella have flagella, Shigella do NOT.
  52. CAMPfire.
    Campylobacter can grow at 42C
  53. Big BLT
    • Spirochetes:
    • Borrelia (Big one)(visualized by analine dyes-Giemsa)
    • Leptospira
    • Treponema (dark field microscopy)
  54. Lyme FACE
    • Lyme disease:
    • Facial nerve palsy
    • Arthritis
    • Cardiac block
    • Erythema migrans (ECM)
  55. VDRL
    • False positives of the VDRL syphilis test:
    • Viruses
    • Drugs
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Lupus/Leprosy
  56. I don't have a Clue why i smell Fish in the Vagina Garden.
    Gardnerella vaginalis
  57. Clue cells, Fishy smell
    • -gray d/c, assoc w sexual activity but not an STD, non-painful,
    • TX: metronidazole
  58. RR-TT
    • Rickettsii on RISTS
    • Typhus on TRUNK
  59. You drive your CARS with Palms and Soles
    • Infections with Palm/Sole rashes:
    • Coxsackie A
    • Rmsf
    • Syphilis (secondary)
  60. Q fever is Queer
    No rash, no vector, survives outside host in endospore form.
  61. Chlamydial life cycle mnemonic
    • 1. Elementary body- Enfectious, Enters by Endocytosis
    • 2. Reticulate body- Replicates by fission
  62. ABC's of Chlamydia
    • C. trachomatosis
    • Africa, Blindness, Chronic
  63. =follicular conjunctivitis in Africa
  64. Histo Hides in Houston
    • Histoplasmosis is in the Mississippi River Valley (South)
    • Hides in Macrophages
    • Hides in Bird/bat droppings
  65. Blasto Buds Broadly in Bone in Boston
    • Blastomycosis is EAST of Mississippi River
    • Blasto is a broad budding yeast (size of an RBC)
    • Disseminated infection spreading to skin and BONE
    • Granulomatous nodules
  66. Captain's Wheel
    • Paracoccidiodomycosis
    • Latin America
    • Very large budding yeast (larger than RBC)
  67. Spaghetti and Meatballs
    • Malassezia furfur (Tinea Versicolor)
    • hypo or hyperpigmented lesions from melanocyte damage
    • Hot, humid climates
    • TX: Selsun
  68. A's of Aspergillus
    • Acute Angles (45deg, septate with conidophore)
    • Aspergilloma
    • ABPA
    • invasive Aspergillosis
    • Aflatoxins
  69. plant Roses in Pots.
    Treat Sporotrichosis (Rose-gardners disease) with Potassium Iodide.
  70. Classic Triad of Congenital Toxoplasmosis
    Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracranial Calcifications
  71. MEAT is most common transmission, NOT cats.
  72. "it SURe is nice to go to sleep, MELAtonin helps with sleep"
    Treatment for Trypanosoma brucei/gambiense/rhodesiense (Af Sleeping Sickness):
  73. Suramin for blood bourne
    Melarsoprol for CNS
  74. Vivá Ovas!
    • "Long live the eggs"
    • Malarias with hypnozoites: Vivax, Ovale
  75. Bendy Worms.
    • Treat worms with Bendazoles:
    • Pinworm= Mebendazole
    • Ascaris= Albendazole or Pyrantel pamoate
    • Strongyloides=Albendazole or ivermectin
    • Hookworms= Bendazoles or Pyrantel pamoate
  76. Black flies, Black skin nodules, Black sight
    • River Blindness= Onchocera volvulus
    • rIVERmectin (rIVER blindness)
  77. EAT
    • Nematodes infecting by ingestion:
    • Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella
  78. SANd
    • Nematodes infecting by cutaneous:
    • Strongyloides
    • Ancyclostoma
    • Necator
  79. 'MeMbeR, Saban can Yell but he's really a Little Chicken.
    • Live vaccines:
    • MMR (mumps, measles, rubella)
    • Sabin (polio)
    • Yellow Fever
    • Chicken pox (VZV)
    • Little= Smallpox
    • (note: Intravasal Influenza is also live, injected not)
  80. Part-of-a-virus
    Parvoviridae: the only DNA viruses that are ssDNA
  81. Repeat-O-Virus
    Reoviridae are the only dsRNA viruses
  82. Retro Toga party drinking FLAVored CORONA and ate HIPPY CALI PICO.
    • Positive strand RNA
    • Retrovirus, Togavirus, Flavivirus, Coronavirus, HepE, Calicivirus, Picornavirus
  83. give PAPP smears and CPR to naked HIPPIES
    • Naked viruses:
    • Papilloma, Adeno, Picorna, Polyoma, Calici, Parvo, Reo, HepE
  84. HHAPPPPY viruses
    Hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papilloma, Polyoma
  85. (all dsDNA except PARVOVIRUS)
  86. Which DNA virus carries its own DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase and therefore replicates in CYTOPLASM?
    • Poxviruses.
    • Area also the only "complex" capsid DNA virus
  87. SIGHTomegalovirus
    • CMV
    • AIDS retinitis
  88. hepaDNAvirus
    • HepB virus
    • circular
    • has a Reverse Transcriptase (not a retrovirus tho)
    • Vax= HbSAg
  89. Junky Cerebrum, Bad Kidneys
    • Polyomaviruses
    • JC= progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV
    • BK=transplant pt's, commonly kidneys
  90. Owl Eye inclusion
    CMV
  91. High fevers and seizures in Kids
    • HHV-6
    • Roseola
  92. Tzanck heavens I don't have herpes
    • Tzanck= smear of opened skin vesicles for multinucleated giant cells
    • HSV1, HSV2, VZV
    • Also have Cowdry A (halo) inclusions
  93. PERCH on a Peak
    • Picronaviruses:
    • Polio, Echo, Rhino, Coxsackie, HepA
  94. California Cruise.
    Caliciviridae= Norovirus (cruise ship bug)
  95. Toga wearing German riding East to West on a Horse.
    • Togaviridae:
    • Rubella= German measles
    • EEE= eastern equine encephalitis
    • WEE=western equine encephalitis
  96. PM&R
    • Paramyxoviruses:
    • Parainfluenza (croup)
    • RSV (Rx with Ribavirin)
    • Measles, Mumps
  97. Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication
    Negative stranded RNA viruses: require viral RNApoly
  98. Arena, Bunya, Paramyxo, Orthomyxo, Filoviruses, Rhabdo
  99. BOAR
    • segmented RNA viruses
    • Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, Reoviridae
  100. 3 C's of Measles
    Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivits
  101. (Koplik spots, descending rash, SSPE, Giant Cell Pneumonia)
  102. POM-POMs
    • Mumps virus (paramyxovirus)
    • Parotitis, Orchitis, Meningitis
  103. Can cause sterility
  104. "Irrational fear of Water"
  105. Three A's of HepA
    Asymptomatic, Acute, Alone (no carriers)
  106. Four C's of HepC
    Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carrier
  107. Three E's of HepE
    Enteric, Expectant (moms), Epidemic
  108. Vowels hit the Bowels
    • Hep A & E
    • Naked viruses so not killed in gut
  109. HBeAg
    Active viral replication
  110. Anti-HBs
    indicates immunity to HBV, either natural or vaccinated
  111. Anti-HBe
    indicates low transmission potential
  112. HBsAg
    indicates infection with HepB
  113. ALT>AST
    • viral hepatitis
    • Alcoholic is reversed (Strong-Liquor)(AST>ALT)
  114. SE-CES
    • Antigens: S before E
    • Antibodies: antiC, antiE, antiS
  115. Acute HBV
    • HBeAg
    • Ig
  116. Chronic HBV, highly infective
    • HBsAg, HBeAg
    • IgG AntiHBc
  117. Chronic HBV, low infectivity
    • HBsAg,
    • IgG Anti-HBc
  118. Immunized for HepB
    AntiHBs only
  119. Four Stages of HIV Infection
    • Flu-like
    • Feeling Fine
    • Falling Count
    • Final Crises
  120. CD4<100
    • Histoplasma capsulatum (H/smegaly)
    • Toxoplasma (Abscesses, Ring lesions)
  121. CD4<400
    Candida (thrush)
  122. CD4<200
    • JC virus (PML)
    • P.jirovecii pneumonia
    • Cryptosporidium (diarrhea)
  123. CD4<50
    • Cryptococcus
    • CMV (retinitis)
    • MAiC (Tuberculous disease)
  124. Bugs that mimic appendicitis
    • Yersinia enterocolitica
    • Nontyphoid salmonella
    • Cambylobacter jejuni
  125. Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum
    • Childhood causes of pneumonia:
    • RSV
    • Mycoplasma
    • Chlamydia trachomatis (infants)
    • Chlamydia pneumoniae (school age)
    • S.pneumo
  126. What bug is a neonatal cause of meningitis but NOT pneumonia?
    • Listeria
    • (GBS & E.coli cause both)
  127. What two antbx do you give empirically for suspected meningitis?
    Ceftriaxone & Vancomycin
  128. Viral causes of meningitis
    • Enterviruses (Coxsackie most comm)
    • HSV2 (HSV1 is encephalitis)
    • HIV
    • WNV
    • VZV
  129. HIV meningitis
    • Cryptococcus
    • CMV
    • Toxoplasmosis(brain abscess)
    • JC Virus (PML)
  130. Diabetic osteomyelitis
    Pseudomonas or Serratia
  131. Sickle Cell Anemia + Osteomyelitis
    SALMONELLA.
  132. Prosthetic & Osteomyelitis
    • S.aureus
    • S. epidermidis
  133. Vertebral disease & Osteomyelitis
    MTB (pott's dz)
  134. Nonspecific ToRCHeS signs
    Hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation
  135. Hydrops fetalis virus
    Parvovirus B19
  136. ToRCHeS
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • Rubella
    • Cmv
    • Hiv/Hsv2
    • Syphilis
  137. Congenital T.gondii
    Classic Triad: Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracranial calcification
  138. Congenital Rubella
    PDA+ Cataracts/deathness+ Bluberry Muffin rash
  139. Congenital HIV
    Recurrent infections, diarrhea
  140. Congenital HSV2
    Encephalitis, herpetic lesions
  141. Congenital syphilis
    • Often stillbirth
    • Hydrops fetalis
    • Facial (Hutchison teeth, Saddle nose, short maxilla)
    • Saber shins
    • CNVIII deafness
  142. Rubella rash
    • Head to trunk
    • Fine
    • Postauricular LA
  143. Measles rash
    • Preceeded by three C's (Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivitis)
    • Koplik spots
    • Head-down
  144. VZV rash
    • CROPS
    • begins on trunk
    • goes to face/extemities
  145. HHV-6
    • ROSEOLA
    • HIGH fever, then comes rash
    • febrile seizures
  146. Parvovirus B19
    • Slapped Cheeks (FIFTHS DISEASE)
    • Hydrops fetalis in pregnant women
  147. Strep pyogenes rash
    • Scarlet fever
    • SANDPAPER
    • Fever & Soar throat
  148. Coxsackie A
    • Hand-Foot-Mouth
    • Vesicular PALMS & SOLES
    • "CARS"-CoxA, RMSF, Syphilis

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