Pathophys exam1

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mks
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194997
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Pathophys exam1
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2013-01-29 13:10:29
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PATHOPHYS
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Exam 1
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  1. ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD
    DURING ACTION POTENTIAL, PLASMA MEMBRANE NOT ABLE TO RESPOND TO ADDITIONAL STIMULUS
  2. ACTION POTENTIAL
    A CHANGE IN RESTING MEMBRANE EXCEED THRESHOLD VALUE, WHEN NERVE OR MUSCLE CELL RECEIVES STIMULUS
  3. ACTIVE MEDIATED TRANSPORT
    WITH EXPENDITURE OF ENERGY, PROTEIN TRANSPORTER MOVED MOLECULES AGAINST CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
  4. AMPHIPATHIC MOLECULE
    ONE PART HYDROPHOBIC (UNCHARGED) AND ANOTHER PART HYDROPHILIC (CHARGED)
  5. ANABOLISM
    THE ENERGY -USING PROCESS OF METABOLISM
  6. ANEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
    • -SUBSTRATE PHOSPHORYLATION
    • -DOES NOT TAKE PLACE IN MITOCHONDRIA
    • -BREAKDOWN OF CARBOHYDRATE TO SYNTHESIZE ATP W/O OXYGEN
  7. AUTOPHAGY
    • WHEN CELLULAR DEBRIS IS ENCAPSULATED WITHIN A VESICLE THAT REACTS WITH A LYSOSOME TO COMPLETE DEGRADATION.
    • ALSO OCCURS IN STARVATION, TO ENABLE CELL TO USE OWN SUBSTANCES FOR FUEL WITHOUT HARM
  8. BASEMENT MEMBRANE
    PART OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, CELLS CAN BE BOUND TOGETHER BY ATTACHMENT
  9. CATABOLISM
    THE ENERGY-RELEASING PROCESS
  10. CELL ADHESION MOLECULE [CAM]
    PROTEINS THAT ALLOW CELLS TO HOOK TOGETHER AND ALLOW ATTACHMENTS TO THE CYTOSKELETON TO MAINTAIN CELL SHAPE
  11. COLLAGEN
    CABLE LIKE FIBERS OR SHEETS THAT PROVIDE TENSILE (MAX) STRENGTH OR RESISTANCE TO LONGITUDINAL STRESS
  12. COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR
    COMPETE FOR SAME RECEPTOR SITE, MAY OR MAY NOT BE TRANSPORTED BY TRANSPORT PROTEIN
  13. CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
    THE DIFFERENCE IN SOLUTE CONCENTRATION
  14. CYCLIC GUANOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE [cGMP]
    • SERVES AS A SECOND MESSENGER SIMILAR TO cAMP PATHWAY
    • (INVOLVED IN VISION)
  15. CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE [cAMP]
    SERVES AS A SECOND MESSENGER IN cAMP PATHWAY, BINDING OF LIGAND TO SURFACE RECEPTOR ACTIVATES ENZYME ADENYLYL CYCLASE ON INNER MEMBRANE
  16. DIFFERENTIATION
    WHEN CELLS BECOME SPECIALIZED OR MATURE, PERFORMING ONE KIND OF FUNCTION
  17. DIFFUSION
    MOVEMENT OF A SOLUTE FROM GREATER CONCENTRATION TO AREA OF LESSER CONCENTRATION
  18. G PROTEIN
    A MEMBRANE BOUND 'MIDDLE-MAN' ACTING AS AN INTERMEDIARY BETWEEN RECEPTOR AND ADENYLYL CYCLASE. THEY ARE BOUND TO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDES (GTP,GDP)
  19. GATING
    A PLASMA MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY CONTROL PROCESS  DEPENDENT ON CALCIUM ION CONCENTRATION IN CYTOPLASM. HIGH CALCIUM DECREASES PERMEABILITY
  20. ISOTONIC SOLUTION
    HAVING SAME OSMOLALITY OR CONC. OF PARTCLES AS THE ICF OR ECF
  21. PASSIVE MEDIATED TRANSPORT [FACILITATED DIFFUSION]
    A PROTEIN TRANSPORTER THAT MOVES SOLUTES THROUGH MEMBRANES WITHOUT EXPENDING METABOLIC ENERGY [GOES DOWN CONC. GRADIENT]
  22. ONCOTIC PRESSURE
    [COLLOIDAL ONCOTIC PRESSURE]
    THE OVERALL OSMOTIC EFFECT OF COLLOIDS, LIKE PLASMA PROTEINS

    A FORM OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE EXERTED BY PRTNS, USUALLY TEND TO PULL WATER INTO CIRCULATORY
  23. OSMOLALITY
    MEASURE OF THE NUMBER OF MILLIOSMOLES PER KG OF WATER, OR THE CONC. OF MOLECULES PER WEIGHT OF WATER
  24. OSMOLARITY
    MEASURE OF THE NUMBER OF MILLIOSMOLES PER LITER OF SOLUTION, OR THE CONC. OF MOLECULES PER VOLUME OF SOLUTION
  25. OSMOSIS
    MOVEMENT OF WATER DOWN A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT (HIGH TO LOW)
  26. OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    THE AMOUNT OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE REQUIRED TO OPPOSE THE OSMOTIC MOVEMENT OF WATER
  27. PARENCHYMA
    THE BULK OF THE SUBSTANCE RATHER THAN ITS FRAMEWORK
  28. PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR [PDGF]
    STIMULATES THE PRODUCTION OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS
  29. PEROXISOME [MICROBODY]
    • LARGER AND OVAL OR IRREGULARLY SHAPED THAN LYSOSOMES, CONTAIN SEVERAL OXIDATIVE ENZYMES
    • MAJOR SITES OF OXYGEN UTILIZATION
    • (USUALLY CONTAIN ENZYMES THAT OXYGEN TO REMOVE HYDROGEN ATOMS FROM SPECIFIC SUBSTRATES IN OXIDATIVE REACTIONS THAT PRODUCE H2O2
  30. RAFT
    RAISED GROUPINGS OF MEMBRANES THAT HELP ORGANIZE COMPONENTS OF A MEMBRANE
  31. RETICULAR FIBERS
    • THIN, SHORT BRANCHING FIBERS THAT FORM INELASTIC NETWORKS MADE FROM RETICULUM (COLLAGEN-LIKE PROTEIN)
    • MOSTLY FORMS THE INTERNAL FRAMEWORK (STROMA)
  32. TONICITY
    • THE EFFECTIVE OSMOLALITY OF A SOLUTION
    • (SOLUTIONS HAVE RELATIVE DEGREES OF TONICITY)
    • IMPORTANCE: WHEN CORRECTING WATER AND SOLUTE IMBALANCES BY ADMINISTERING DIFFERENT TYPES OF REPLACEMENT SOLUTIONS
  33. HYPOTONIC SOLUTION
    • HAS A LOWER CONC. AND IS MORE DILUTE THAN BODY FLUIDS
    • EX: WATER...OSMOTICALLY RUSHED INTO CELLS CAUSING THEM TO SWELL OR BURST
  34. HYPERTONIC SOLUTION
    • HAS A HIGHER CONC. AND IS MORE CONCENTRATED THAN BODY FLUIDS
    • EX: 3% SALINE SOLUTION ...WATER CAN BE PULLED OUT OF CELL BY HYPERTONIC SOLUTION AND CELL SHRINKS
  35. ANOXIA
    TOTAL LACK OF OXYGEN CAUSED BY SUDDEN OBSTRUCTION
  36. APOPTOSIS
    • PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH
    • IN BOTH NORMAL/PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES
  37. AVULSION
    • A WDIE AREA OF TISSUE IS PULLED AWAY, CREATING LARGE FLAP
    • EX FOOT LACERATION FROM BRAKE PEDAL
  38. BILIRUBIN
    NORMAL YELLOW-GREEN BILE FROM PORPHYRIN STRUCTURE OF HEMOGLOBIN
  39. CASPASE
    • FAMILY OF ASPARTIC ACID SPECIFIC PROTEASES 
    • PROMOTE APOPTOSIS
  40. CELLULAR ACCUMULATION [INFILTRATION]
    • DEPOSITS AND ACCUMULATIONS IN CELLS
    • CAN BE PATHOLOGICAL OR NORMAL PROCESS
    • INCULDES STORAGE DISEASES
  41. CHEMICAL ASPHYXIANT
    • A CHEMICAL WHICH INTERRUPTS BREATHING
    • EX CARBON MONOXIDE, HYDROGEN CYANIDE, HYDROGEN SULFIDE
  42. CONTUSION [BRUISE]
    • BLEEDING INTO THE SKIN/UNDERLYING TISSUE AS CONSEQUENCE OF BLOW TO SOFT TISSUE
    • BLOOD VESSELS RUPTURE WITHOUT BREAKING SKIN
  43. FAT NECROSIS
    [PANCREAS, BREAST]
    WHEN LIPASES HYDROLYZE TRIGLYCERIDES AND RELEASE FATTY ACIDS & COMBIN WITH CALCIUM,MAGNESIUM AND SODIUM IONS CREATING SOAPS
  44. HEMOSIDERIN
    • STORAGE FORM OF IRON
    • YELLOW BROWN PIGMENT DERIVED FROM HEMOGLOBIN (SEEN IN BRUISING)
  45. HYPOXIA
    LACK OF SUFFICIENT OXYGEN
  46. ISCHEMIA
    • REDUCED BLOOD SUPPLY
    • OFTEN CAUSED BY ARTERIOSCLEROSIS AND THROMBOSIS
  47. LACERATION
    TEAR OR RIP RESULTING WHEN TENSILE STRENGTH OF SKIN/TISSUE EXCEEDED
  48. LIPID-ACCEPTOR PROTEIN [APOPROTEINS]
    BIND WITH TRIGLYCERIDES TO FORM LIPOPROTEINS TO TRANSPORT OUT OF CELL
  49. LIPID PEROXIDATION
    DESTRUCTION OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
  50. STIPPLING
    WHEN FRAGMENTS OF POWDER STRIKE AND SCRAPE SKIN, NO PENETRATION
  51. VACUOLATION
    • FORMATION OF VACUOLES OR CYTOPLASMIC SMALL CAVITY WITHIN CYTOPLASM
    • LYSOSOMES & MITOCHONDRIA SWELL AND WEAK
  52. ACIDEMIA
    PH ARTERIAL BLOOD LESS THAN 7.35
  53. ACIDOSIS
    SYSTEMIC INCREASE OF HYDROGEN ION CONC.
  54. ALDOSTERONE
    • MINERALOCORTICOILD STEROID WHICH REGULATES SODIUM BALANCE THROUGH RENAL TUBULAR REABSORPTION
    • INFLUENCED BY PLASMA CONC. LOW SOD/ HIGH POT/ LOW RENAL PERFUSION
    • PROMOTES NA/H20 REABSORPTION CONSERVING BLOOD VOLUME
  55. ALKALEMIA
    PH ARTERIAL BLOOD GREATER THAN 7.45
  56. ALKALOSIS
    SYSTEMIC DECREASE OF HYDROGEN ION CONC.
  57. ANGIOTENSIN 1
    INACTIVE POLYPEPTIDE STIMULATED BY RENIN---IS THEN CONVERTED TO ANGIOTENSIN 2
  58. ANGIOTENSIN 2
    • ACTIVE
    • STIMULATES SECRETION OF ALDOSTERONE
    • CAUSES VASOCONTRICTION
  59. ANION GAP
    • THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SUM OF SODIUM & POTASSIUM AND THE SUM OF BICARB & CHLORIDE
    • CAN DISTINGUISH MEABOLIC ACIDOSIS
  60. BARORECEPTORS
    STRETCH RECEPTORS SENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN VOLUME AND PRESSURE
  61. BUFFERS
    ABSORB EXCESSIVE ACID OR BASE WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN PH
  62. CALCITONIN
    HORMONE WHICH DECREASES CALCIUM LEVELS BY INHIBITING OSTEOCLASTIC ACTIVITY IN BONE
  63. COMPENSATION
    • ADJUSTMENT IN PH
    • RENAL COMPENSATES BY PRODUCING MORE ACIDIC OR MORE ALKALINE URINE
  64. CORRECTION
    OCCURS WHEN VALUES FOR BOTH COMPONENTS OF BUFFER PAIR RETURN TO NORMAL
  65. DILUTION HYPONATREMIA
    WHEN THERE IS EXCESS TOTAL BODY WATER  IN RELATION TO TOTAL BODY SODIUM OR A SHIFT IN OF WATER FROM ICF TO ECF SPACE
  66. HYPERCALCEMIA
    SERUM CALCIUM CONC. EXCEEDING 12 MG/DL
  67. HYPERCAPNIA
    EXCESS OF CARBON DIOXIDE
  68. HYPERKALEMIA
    ELEVATION OF ECF POTASSIUM ABOVE 5.5 MEQ/L
  69. HYPERNATREMIA
    SERUM SODIUM LEVEL EXCEEDING 147 MEQ/L
  70. HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA
    ELEVATED SERUM PHOSPHATE LEVEL EXCEEDING 4.5 MG/DL
  71. HYPERPOLARIZATION
    CHANGE IN THE CELL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL THAT MAKES IT MORE NEGATIVE
  72. INTERSTITIAL FLUID
    • COMPARTMENT OF ECF
    • FLUID BETWEEN CELLS
  73. INTRACELLULAR FLUID [ICF]
    • TWO THIRDS OF BODYS WATER
    • INSIDE CELLS
  74. INTRAVASCULAR FLUID
    • COMPARTMENT OF ECF
    • BLOOD PLASMA
  75. LYMPHEDEMA
    BLOCKED OR REMOVED LYMPHATIC CHANNEL AND PRTNS AND FLUID ACCUMULATES IN INTERSTITIAL SPACE 
  76. METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
    NONCARBONIC ACIDS INCREASE OR BICARBONATE  LOST FROM ECF, OR CANNOT BE REGENERATED BY KIDNEY
  77. METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
    WHEN BICARBONATE INCREASED USUALLY BY LOSS OF METABOLIC ACIDS
  78. NET FILTRATION
    MOVEMENT OF FLUID BACK AND FORTH ACROSS CAPILLARY WALL
  79. NONVOLATILE BODY ACID
    • METABOLIC ACIDS
    • ELIMINATED BY THE KIDNEY OR METABOLIZED BY LIVER
  80. VOLATILE BODY ACID
    • RESPIRATORY ACID
    • ELIMINATED AS CARBON DIOXIDE GAS
  81. NORMAL ANION GAP
    CONDITIONS RELATED TO BICARBONATE LOSS WITH RETENTION OF CHLORIDE TO MAINTAIN IONIC BALANCE
  82. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
    • ALVEOLAR HYPOVENTILATION
    • CARBON DIOXIDE RETAINED INCREASING HYDROGEN ION
  83. RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
    ALVEOLAR HYPERVENTILATION & DECREASED PLASMA CARBON DIOXIDE
  84. SIADH [SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE  SECRETION OF ADH]
    • CIRCUMSTANCE CONTRIBUTING TO EXCESS WATER
    • CAUSED BY INCREASED RENAL REABSORPTION OF WATER AS RESULT OF INAPPROPRIATE INCREASE IN ADH
  85. WATER DEFICITS
    • HYPEROSMOLAR OR HYPERTONIC DEHYDRATION
    • NO ACCESS TO WATER
  86. WATER INTOXICATION
    • FREE WATER ACCESS; EXCESSIVE PURE WATER INTAKE
    • LEADS TO INTRACELLULAR OVERHYDRATION AND CELL SWELLING

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