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What makes up the central nervous system (CNS)?
- brain stem
- spinal cord
What are the parts of the brain stem?
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
How many sacral spinal nerves are there?
How many coccygeal nerves are there?
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
What makes up the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
- spinal nerves
- cranial nerves
- nerves of autonomic nervous system (ANS)
What are the subsections of the autonomic nervous system?
- sympathetic nerves (splanchnic nn)
- parasympathetic nerves (pelvic nn)
What are the 4 fundamental processes of the nervous system? AKA: What does the nervous system do for an organism?
- reception of sensory information
- analysis of stimuli
- transmission of motor response to analyzed information
- initiation of effector response
In the nervous system, reception of sensory info enters ___ by way of ___.
CNS by way of PNS
Give an example of an internal stimulation:
Give an example of external stimuli:
What are the two types of sensory stimuli?
- special senses (vision, hearing, smell, and taste)
- general sensation (touch)
The analysis of stimuli info gets into ___ by ___.
CNS by PNS
99% of stimuli analysis occurs in ___.
What 4 things can the CNS do with the stimuli it receives?
- coordinate (the motor system)
- interpret (makes sense of stimuli)
- modulate sensation
takes stuff from outside and makes sense of it
modulate pain to make it not hurt as much
What is the simplest form of analysis of information?
reflex activity which is only processed in the SC
The motor response to the analyzed information goes out of ___ through ___.
- out of CNS through PNS (spinal, cranial, ANS)
- -CNS pathways may transmit to other places (travel up SC to brain)
What are examples of effector response to stimuli?
- muscle contraction
- tear glands produce tears
- run away from something scary
- info coming into CNS
- info going away from CNS
sensory afferent, motor efferent
Dorsal Afferent, Ventral Efferent
What are the 6 characteristics of neurons?
- 1. produce action potentials
- 2. sensitive to O2 deprivation
- 3. limited ability to undergo mitosis after birth
- 4. differentiate in forms and functions
- 5. somatotopic representation (organization)
- 6. NS doesn't work is isolation of other systmes
How many neurons are in the body?
What is an action potential?
electrical impulse that transmits info from point A to point B
Besides neurons, what else can produce action potentials?
- skeletal muscle
- cardiac muscle
Under normal conditions, what percentage of the O2 carried in the blood by RBCs is used by the nervous system?
20-40% (the rest goes to skeletal mm)
When there are decreased amounts of O2 in neurons, what happens?
- serious consequences
- w/ a stroke, deprive brain of blood and oxygen
- heart attack, aren't getting oxygen out to the body
What 2 areas of the brain still undergo mitosis after birth?
- hippocampus (memory)
- rhinencephalon (olfactory)
Where is the hippocampus located?
Where is the rhinencephalon located?
frontal lobe (geniculate gyrus, parahippocampal region, and olfactory region)
specific body part is controlled by a specific location in the brain
Where is the somatosensory strip located?
Where is the motor strip located?
Cardiovascular system influences NS via blood flow (i.e., blood carries O2 in arteries therefore anything that decreases blood flow will decrease O2)
Therefore, if you have lost strength, it could be muscular or cardio (loss of blood supply which causes weakness); cardio delivers things all over the body to all different systems
the only molecular form that neurons need, so the body relies on the digestive and CV system to get glucose to the brain
Reasons the NS doesn't work in isolation:
- blood transports enzymes necessary for metabolic activity
- electrolytes are necessary to generate AP (ions that conduct electrical current)
- immune system: autoimmune diseases like MS (causing demyelination of neurons) causes spasticity
Even though we focus on nervous system,
we should be aware of the fact that other systems greatly impact the nervous system and vice versa