Psych Quiz #1

Card Set Information

Author:
chiroclown
ID:
19504
Filename:
Psych Quiz #1
Updated:
2010-05-16 19:16:04
Tags:
Chapters
Folders:

Description:
Note cards for Chapters 1, 2, and 3
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user chiroclown on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Coping Stratgies- 8 Sub Categories
    • 1) Confrontive Coping (P)- Includes Risk Taking
    • 2) Planful (P)- Analytical
    • 3) Distancing (E)- Detach
    • 4) Self-Control (E)
    • 5) Accepting Responsibility (E)- Ownership of Own Role
    • 6) Escape-Avoidance (E)- Wishful Thinking; engaging in other activities
    • 7) Positive Reappraisal (E)- Personal Growth; Looking at silverlining
    • 8) Social Support (P/E)
  2. Respondent
    • Classic Conditioning
    • Automatically Elicited or Unconditioned Response
  3. Ellis' Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
    • Tackles:
    • Illogical Thinking- primary factor
    • Perfectionist Goals
    • 'Awfulizing'- Self-defeating
    • Cures unreason by reason
    • Therapists are active, directive and confrontive
    • Self-Help/ Self-Management
  4. Yerkes Dodson Inverted U-Model
    • Intermediate Levels of stress= enhanced performance
    • High and low stress can both produce low productivity
  5. Self-Eficacy
    • Expectations of personal mastery
    • I can execute behavior to produce desired outcomes
  6. Classical Conditioning
    • Pavlovian
    • Pair neutral stumuli with stimuli that elicits response automomatically without prior learning
  7. Coping in:
    1) Infancy/ Early Childhood
    2) Older Children/ Adolescent
    3) Adolescent
    • 1) Coping at conception: Crying, self-soothing (finger sucking, move from stress, arms up to be held)
    • 2) Problem solving thoughts, emotion control strategies (I made myself be still)
    • 3) Problem-focused= better adjustment/ less stress
    • Avoidance and emotion focused= less effective
  8. 1) Problem-Focused
    2) Emotion-Focused
    • 1) Modify, minimize avoid--> Direct attack on stressor
    • 2) Moderate, elminate emotions, positive reappraisal, denial, wishful thinking--> Helps with uncontrollable but not sustainable in long-term
  9. 1) Objective anxiety
    2) Neurotic Anxiet
    • 1) Troubled mind about a specific something
    • 2) Troubled about things we cannot change --> keeps you from doing something about it.
  10. 1) Hardiness
    2) Locus of Control
    3) Learned Resourcefulness
    4) Optimism
    • 1) A- Commitment to self; B- Believe in control; C- Challenge is positive and normal
    • 2) Can look inward and outward to place blame
    • 3) Problem-solving, Emotion reuglation, believe they can deal with 'Reasonable Stress'
    • 4) Generalized expectancey that good things will happen
  11. Measuring Stress Reactions
    • 1) Self-Report (i.e. tests)
    • 2) Behavioral obsrevations
    • 3) Physiological Measures (cardiovascular, muscular tension)
  12. Extinction
    • Gradual Diminuation of a learned response because the response does not receive reinforcement
    • Operants are lowered without reward
    • Conditioned response lowers without the unconditioned stimuli
  13. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
    Exessive, continual and unrealistic worry that is difficult to control.
  14. Stimuus Narrowing
    • Operant
    • Restricting situations in which a problem behavior can be emitted
    • (if you want to sulk you have to go in the garage)
  15. Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Trainin (SIT)
    • Teaches Emotion and Problem focused
    • 1) conceptualization- Stress reaction in understandable context
    • 2) skills acquisition and rehearsal- self-dialogue lowers stress and increases problem solving attitude
    • 3) application and follow through- exposure to stressor and applying coping strategies
  16. Neurotic
    Blanket reaction to anything remotely similar
  17. 1) Stressors
    2) Acute Stressors
    3) Chronic Stressor
    • 1) Circumstance that induces stress response
    • 2) Brief exposure with start and stop point
    • 3) Persistant exposture without clear demarcation
  18. Cognitive-Behavioral
    • Cognitions and behaviors and emotions are inter-related
    • Alleviate physiological (i.e. uscle tension) and teaches coping skills
  19. Ivan Pavlov
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Russian
    • Studying digestion--> saliva output triggered by meat powder scent
    • Watson's ideas based on this as well
  20. 1) State Anxiety
    2) Trait Anxiety
    • 1) Momentary State--> If stressor is removed then anxiety is removed/ coped with and comes and goes
    • 2) Consistent--> part of personality/ disposition and constant but about different issues.
  21. 1) Primary Appraisal
    2) Secondary Appraisal
    • 1) Initial assessment of an event- how it will it affect well being
    • 2) Evaluate resources (coping options to escame/ minimize stress

    Coping is Transactional and there is constant primary/ secondary appraisal
  22. Paradoxes of Stress
    • 1) Rational and irrational
    • 2) Normal and abnormal
    • 3) Everyday and Life Changing
    • 4) Universal and Unique
    • 5) Enhances and Hinders
    • 6) Brings out the Best and Worst
    • 7) To fix either Do or Don't
    • 8) Past, present and future
  23. Contingency Contract
    • Operant conditioning
    • Agreement between two parties- rewards for certain behaviors
  24. Social Support
    • Key in coping aid and stress buffer
    • Perception of people power is most closely related to how an individual deals versus reality
  25. Discriminative Stimulus
    • Operant conditioning
    • Environmental cue indicates that an operant behavior at this time will be reinforced
  26. Unconditioned Stimulus
    • Classic Conditioning
    • Any stimulus without prior learning elicits a particular response
  27. Define Mental Mind/ Illness
    • 1) Impact daily functioning
    • 2) Causes suffering to individual or others
    • 3) volitile/ Labile
    • 4) Behavior violates a social norm

    Must be more than one but not all of them
  28. Skinner
    • Operant--> fear is not an operant behavior
    • Punishment for behavior will not change behavior; must be reinforced with positive response
    • Behavior response can be altered but not the fear
  29. Conditioned Stimulus
    • A stimulus that is natural prior to learning
    • When paired with an unconditioned stimulus, elicits a conditioned response
  30. Unconditioned Response
    Unlearned response --> reflex that is automatically elicited by UC stimulus
  31. Learned Helplessness
    • Emotion focused only
    • Repeated exposure to averse situations leads to no control
    • 1) loss of motivation to respond
    • 2) diminished learning ability
    • 3) emotional disturbance (Depression/ anxiety)
  32. STAI Stress Inventory
    • Presumes dispositional tendency of stress response
    • Predictive of fear related to threat of self-esteem or failure- NOT phobias, specific situations or strong physical threat
  33. Cognitive Appraisal
    • Draw conclusions about perceived danger (over or underestimate)
    • A situation becomes stressful only if we contrue ti to be so.
    • Stimulus + Perception = Emotion or Response
  34. Operant Conditioning
    • Voluntarily emitted response (operants
    • Appropriate operant behavior is crucial to stress coping
    • Discriminate and generalize stimuli (cues) in others
    • Responses are discriminant and generalized
    • Can diminishg excessive behaviors
    • Teach behaviors to increase 'good' behaviors
  35. 1) Phobia
    2) Social Phobia
    3) Specific/ Simple Phobia
    • 1) Persistent fear of specific, clearly defined objects or situations
    • 2) Fear of/ avoiding situations where a task is performed while other watch/ evaluate
    • 3) Wide range of non-social objects/ situations (i.e. storms, animals)
  36. OCD
    Persistent ideas, thoughts, impusles or images that cause uncontrollable anxiety combined with behavior to reduce anxiety
  37. Beneficial Elements of Stress
    • 1) Coping and problem solving skills
    • 2) Self-efficacy
    • 3) Self-esteem
  38. Attachment
    • Must be attached to someone who:
    • 1) consistent
    • 2) can attend to needs
    • 3) attuned to me

    Connected to most/ all psychological issues in life
  39. Freud
    • Capacity for anxiety as innate self-preservation instinct
    • Anxiety is part of human existence
  40. Counterconditioning Techniques
    • 1) Aversive
    • 2) Cognitively induced aversion
    • 3) Orgasmic reconditioning
  41. John B. Watson
    • 3 stimuli that innately produce fear:
    • 1) pain
    • 2) sudden loss of support
    • 3) noise

    • All other fears are learned through classical conditioning
    • behaviorist
    • Sees child as blank slate
  42. Desensitization and Exposure Techniques
    • Used to diminish anxiety responses
    • Change emotional response to stressors
    • Emotion coping
  43. Counterconditioning
    Used to change emotional reactions to problematic situations
  44. Lazarus and Folkman
    Stress appraisal and coping techniques
  45. Fear Conditioning
    • Watson an Paynor
    • Unconditional Response Stimulus
    • Unconditioned REsponse
    • Conditioned Response stimulus
    • Conditioned response

    CS (Sounds) --> CR (Salavation)

    UCS (Food) --> UCR (Salivation)
  46. 1) Nature
    Vs.
    2) Nurture
    • 1) Fetal hormones, biological make-up, in-born genetic/ natural to human species
    • 2) Who raised you, culture, where you were raised
  47. Panic Attack
    • Sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror associated with impending doom
    • Breathing, choking, palpitations, chest pain
  48. 1) Fear
    2) Anxious
    • 1) Source of stress can be readily identified
    • 2) Troubled mind about uncertain event
  49. Reciprocal Inhibition
    • Mechanism by which systematic desensitization works
    • Weakens anxiety responses and relaxation is strengthened
  50. Observational Conditioning
    The parent freaks out at dogs and the child observes and then freaks out at dogs
  51. Gray
    • Other stimuli cause fear without conditioning: darkness, dead or mutliated bodies
    • Evolutionary factore impact fear
    • Arguments against Classical Conditioning:
    • 1) Reaction is very different between impnding exposure and actual
    • 2) Trauma can occur after 1 exposure
  52. Exposure Techniques
    • Face Stimuli, cannot avoid
    • Pull fear to the maximum until situation no longer elicits anxiety
  53. Beck's Cognitive Therapy
    • Identify stress-inducing ideas
    • Systematically question the evidence against illogical thinking
    • Closely connected with treatment of depression
  54. 3 things that make up human mind
    • 1) Behavior (concious and unconcious)
    • 2) Cognition (perception)
    • 3) Emotion/ feelings/ affect
  55. PTSD
    • Symptoms following personal exposure to traumatic stressor
    • 1) Reexperiencing event
    • 2) avoidance of associated thoughts, feelings and activities
    • 3) Arousal- Sleeping problems
  56. 1) Coper
    2) Avoider
    • 1) Problem- Focused: Actively dealing with stress
    • 2) Supress emotions: Less likely to seek out wayt to control stressor
  57. Conditioned Response
    • Illicited by conditioned stimulus
    • Very similar to unconditioned response
  58. Stress
    • Different than fear and anxiety
    • Latin- Strictus and Old french- Etrace
  59. Generalization
    Responses learned to particular stimuli also come to be made to simular stimuli (i.e. rat--> furry, white stimuli)
  60. Anxiety disorders
    • 1) Is reaction proportional to ACTUAL danger?
    • 2) Is stress response functional? Internalizing and reflrecting on FAILURE = Bad

    Previously called neorosis
  61. 1) Coping Processes
    2) Coping Outcomes
    • 1) Strategies/ tactics used to deal with stressful situations and responses
    • 2) how effective the strategies are
  62. Systematic Desensitization
    • 1) Establish hierarchy of feared situations
    • 2) Teach relaxation
    • 3) Pair relaxation with feared situations
    • Images, scenarios and even actual exposure
  63. Panic Disorder
    Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
  64. Implosive Therapy
    • In order to extinguish fear response, whole complex of stimuli must be experienced.
    • This is done in the absence of real punishment.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview