Sanitation (Chap 1-4)
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What is a foodborne illness?
Illness carried or transmitted to people by food.
What is a foodborne-illness outbreak?
Incident which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food.
What group of people are considered high risk for foodborne illness?
- Infants and preschool-age children
- Pregnant women
- Elderly People
- People taking certain medications
- People who are seriously ill
What are the potential hazards to food safety?
What are the biological hazards?
What are the chemical hazards?
- Machine lubricants
- Toxic metals
What are the physical hazards?
- Metal staples
- Broken glass
- Natural objects (ex. fish bones)
What are the common risk factors that make food unsafe?
- Purchasing from unsafe sources
- Time-temperature abuse
- Poor personal hygiene
What is the temperature danger zone?
Between 41 and 135 degrees F
When does cross-contamination occur?
- Microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another
- Carried by utensils, hands or other foods
What is one of the biggest causes of foodborne illness?
Poor personal hygiene
Who are the biggest risk factors to food safety?
People who don't wash their hands properly or often enough
According to the CDC, what are the five common causes for foodborne illnesses?
- Purchasing food from unsafe sources
- Failing to cook food adequately
- Holding food at incorrect temperatures
- Using contaminated equipment
- Praticing poor personal hygiene
What are biological contaminants?
- Microorganism - small, living, organism
- Pathogen - illness-causing microorganism
- Toxin - poison
What is the acronym for what pathogen needs to grow?
What is the F in FAT?
- Microorganisms require nutrients to grow. Specifically carbs and proteins.
- Foods include: meat, poultry, dairy and eggs.
What is the A in FAT?
- Microorganisms grow best in foods that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH (7.5 to 4.6)
What is the T in FAT?
- Microorganisms grow well at temperatures between 41 to 135 degrees F.
What is the T in TOM?
- Microorganisms need sufficient time to grow. (4 hours or more)
What is the O in TOM?
- Some microorganisms require oxygen to grow and some grow without it
What is the M in TOM?
- Most microorganism requires moisture to grow
- The amount of moisture available for this growth is called water activity (aw)
- Hazardout food typically has an aw of .85 or higher.
What are the two conditions where you can control the growth of pathogens?
- Temperature - Cook food properly and refrigerate or freeze food properly
- Time - Minimize the time food spends in the danger zone.
Examples of TCS Food
- Heat treated plant food (rice, beans, vegetables)
- Soy products (tofu)
- Baked potatoes
- Untreated Garlic oil
- Raw spouts
- Cut melons, tomatoes and leafy greens
What are the basic characteristics of viruses?
- Temperature - can survive cooler and freezer temps
- Contamination - contaminate food and water supplies
- Growth - cant grow in food, just inside intestines
- Transfers - person to person, food to food, people to food-contact surfaces
- Foodhandler's improper hygiene
What are virus prevention measures?
- Make sure foodhandlers wash hands properly
- Exclude employees who have vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice or hepatitis A
- Prevent bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food
What are 2 viral foodborne illnesses?
- Hepatitis A
- Norovirus gastonenteritis
What foods are commonly linked to Hep A and Norovirus?
- Ready-to-eat food
- Shellfish from contaminated water
What is the main symptom of Hepatitis A?
What is the most important prevention measure for Hepatitis A?
Practice Personal Hygiene
What are some prevention measures for hepatitis A?
- Keep employees with jaundice and Hepatitis A out of the operation
- Wash hands
- Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food
- Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers
What are the basic characteristics of Bacteria?
- Living, single-celled organism
- Can be carried by food, water, soil, animals, humans, or insects
- Can reproduce rapidly under favorable conditions
- Some survive freezing
- Some change into a different form called spores to protect themselves
- Some spoil food, others cause illness
- Some produce toxins that cause illness
What are two characteristics of spores?
- Can resist heat, allowing them to survive cooking temperatures
- Can revert back to a form capable of grown when food is not stored at he proper temperature and/or food is not held or cooled properly
What are some major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria that can be prevented by controlling time and temperature?
- Hemorrhagic colitis
- Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
- Clostridium perfringens gastroenterities
What are the most common symptoms of Listeriosis?
What foods are commonly linked to Listeriosis?
- Raw meat
- Ready-to-eat food
- Unpasteurized dairy products
What is the most important prevention measure for Listeriosis and Hemorrhagic colitis?
Control time and temperature
What are preventative measures for preventing listeriosis?
- Throw out any product that has passed its use-by or expiration date
- Cook raw meat to minimum internal temperature
- Prevent cross-contamination between raw or undercooked food and ready-to-eat food
- Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products
What are commonly linked foods to Hemorrhagic colitis?
- Ground beef (raw and undercooked)
- Contaminated produce
What are prevention measures for hemorrhagic colitis?
- Cook food to minimum internal temperature
- Purchase produce from approved reputable suppliers
- Prevention cross-contamination
- Keep employees with diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis out of the operation
What are the most common symptoms of Hemorrhagic Colitis?
- Diarrhea (becomes bloody)
- Kidney failure
What is a major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria that can be prevented by preventing cross-contamination?
What are commonly linked foods to Samonellosis?
- Poultry and Eggs
- Dairy products
What are the most common symptoms of Salmonellosis?
- Abdominal Cramps
What are the prevention measures for Salmonellosis?
- Cook poultry and eggs to minimum internal temperatures
- Prevent cross-contaminatin between poultry and ready-to-eat food
- Keep foodhandlers diagnosed with salmonellosis out of the operation
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