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2013-01-25 21:45:48

ch.1 Introduction
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  1. Empirical
    Based on data, observations, repeated experiences, verifiable experiments. Not theoretical
  2. Scientific Method
    A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions
  3. Replication
    The repetition of a study, using different participants
  4. Nature vs. Nurture
    Genetics vs. Environmental Influeneces
  5. Critical Period
    A time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen if it will ever happen (EX:growing arms and legs)
  6. Sensitive Period
    A time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later (EX:learning a language)
  7. Dynamic-Systems Theory
    A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment
  8. Life-Span Perspective
    An approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.
  9. Discontinuity
    • A rapid shift occurs
    • Ex: puberty
  10. Continuity
    Things not changing or steadily increase at the same rate
  11. Ecological-Systems Approach
    The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the context and interactions that constitute a life.
  12. Microsystem
    Elements of the immediate surrounding such as family and friends
  13. Macrosystems
    the larger contexts including cultural values, economic policies and political processes
  14. Mesosystems
    Connects the other systems
  15. Cohort
    A group of people who, because they were born within a few years of each other, experience many of the same historical events and cultural shifts
  16. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    Determined by his or her income, wealth, education, place of residence, and occupation
  17. Ethnic group
    Collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, usually sharing a language, culture, and religion
  18. Race
    Misleading social construction for a group of people who are regarded as distinct on the basis of physical appearance
  19. Mirror Neurons
    Cells in a person's brain that respond to the observed actions of other in the same way they would if the observer had done the action
  20. Scientific Observation
    A method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording of participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner, in the laboratory, in a natural setting, or in searches of archival data
  21. Experiment
    A research method designed to untangle cause from effect by manipulating one variable to observe the effect on another variable
  22. Independent Variable
    The variable that is manipulated
  23. Dependent Variable
    The variable that is affected by the independent variable
  24. Survey
    The research method in which information is collected from a large number of people
  25. Cross-Sectional Research
    Groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with regard to the variable under investigation
  26. Longitudinal Research
    The same group of individual is studied over a period of time to measure both change and stability as they age
  27. Cross-Sequential Research
    Follows a group of people of different ages over time, thus combining the strengths of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods
  28. Correlation
    A number between +1.0 and  -1.0 indicating the degree of relationship between two variables, such that one is likely (or unlikely) to occur when the other occurs or one is likely to increase (or decrease) when the other increases (or decreases).
  29. Quantitative Research
    Collects data that are expressed with numbers
  30. Qualitative Research
    Collects non-numerical descriptions of participants' characteristics behaviors and ideas
  31. Code of Ethics
    A set of moral principles that guide their research
  32. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
    A group within an educational or medical institution whose purpose is to ensure that research is ethical and follows established guidelines