Environmental Science - Quiz 2

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Environmental Science - Quiz 2
2013-01-26 16:20:51

Biomes and Interspecific Interactions
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  1. Adaptation
    involves changes in a population, with characteristics that are passed from one generation to the next.
  2. Natural Selection
     refers to the process in which individuals with useful traits pass those traits to the next generation, while others reproduce less successfully
  3. Tolerance limits
    each environmental factor has both minimum and maximum levels, beyond which a particular species cannot survive or is unable to reproduce.
  4. Indicator Species
    is a general term for organisms whose sensitivities can tell about environmental conditions in an area.
  5. Habitat
    describes the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.
  6. Ecological niche
     describing both the role played by a species in a biological community and the set of environmental factors that determine its distribution. Each species has a role in a community of species, and the niche defined its way of obtaining food, the relationships it had with other species, and the services it provides to its community. Every species exists within a range of physical and chemical conditions, such as temperature, light levels, acidity, humidity, or salinity. It also exists within a set of biological interactions, such as the presence of predators or prey, or the availability of nutritional resources.
  7. Endemic species
    They occupy only in one area (or one type of environment)
  8. Principle of Competitive Exclusion
    when two species compete for limited resources, one eventually gains the larger share, while the other finds different habitat, dies out, or experiences a change in its behavior or physiology so that competition is minimized. NO TWO SPECIES CAN OCCUPY THE SAME ECOLOGICAL NICHE FOR LONG.
  9. Science
    is a body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation, it can be tested over and over again with the same result
  10. Interspecific Interactions
    Inter(between)Specific(species): All living things interact and rely on other species for survival
  11. Neutralism
    00 - No one is effected. (eg. Fox lies down to sleep in the grass)
  12. Competition
    - - Competitive conclusion principle: Only one species can occupy one niche at a time(same level on the food chain-green v. brown lizards)
  13. Amensalism
    - 0 One sided negative relationship - bacteria and fungi(penicillin) 
  14. Parasalism
    + - One thing lives on another (tick)
  15. Predition
    + - One thing kills and eats another
  16. Commensalism
    + 0 One species benefits and the other is unaffected - (Tree>Airplant)
  17. Protocooperation
    + + Both benefit (farmer>cow - farmer gets milk and the cow gets food and health)
  18. Mutualism
    (+ +) MUST have each other to live (termites>flagellate - one celled organism that  break down the wood in the termites' stomachs) 
  19. First Law of Thermodynamics
    States that energy is conserved, it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions
  20. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    States that with each successive energy transfer or transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work as energy it is degraded to lower quality forms, or it dissipates and is lost
  21. Chemosynthesis
    Extract energy from inorganic chemical compounds such as hydrogen sulfide
  22. Extremophiles
    Organisms that gain their energy from chemosynthesis
  23. Photosynthesis
    converts radient energy into useful, high-quality chemical energy in the bonds that hold together organic molecules
  24. Cellular Respiration
    Process of releasing chemical energy involves splitting carbon and hydrogen atoms from the sugar molecule and recombining them with oxygen to recreate carbon dioxide and water
  25. Species
    (latin for "kind") refers to all organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed in nature and produce live, fertile offspring
  26. Population
    Consists of all the members of a species living in a given area at the same time
  27. Biological Community
    Made up of all the populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area
  28. Detritivore
    Consume litter, debris, and dung
  29. Coevolution
    Close adaptation of two species 
  30. Batesian Mimicry
    Certain species that are harmless resemble poisonous or distasteful ones gaining protection against predators who remember a bad experience with the actual toxic organism
  31. Mullerian Mimicry
    Two unpalatable or dangerous species who look alike. When predators learn to avoid either species, both benefit
  32. Sybosis
    Two or more species live intimately together with fates linked(plants/pollinators) 
  33. Index/Keystone Species
    Plays a critical role in a biological community that is out of proportion to its abundance. Typical animal/Characteristic
  34. Biotic Potential
    unrestrained biological potential 
  35. Carrying Capacity
    The number or biomass of animals that can be supported (without harvest) in a certain area of habitat
  36. Logistic Growth
    When resources are unlimited, they may even grow exponentially, but growth slows as the carrying capacity of the environment is approached
  37. R Selected Species
    Are adapted to employ high reproductive rate to overcome the high mortality rate of the virtually ignored offspring
  38. K selected Species
    Adapted for slower growth conditions near the carrying capacity of their environment - reproduce more conservatively - longer generation times - late sexual maturity - fewer young
  39. Biome
    A large area of land where the physical conditions are rather consistent throughout and where plants and animals live that are adapted for those conditions
  40. Ediphates
    Air plants
  41. 1. Sun
    Origin of energy for living organisms on the earth
  42. 2. Photosynthesis
    • process by which the autotroph are able to capture some of the energy of the sun and convert it into chemical energy (food-sugar)
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O
    • This is called an endothermic reaction (endergonic) and is stored in the sugar. 

  43. Endothermic (endergonic) Reaction
    Light energy is transformed into chemical energy (sugar-food). 
  44. 3. Respiration
    • The process by which living organisms (both autotrophs and heterotrophs) take in oxygen and oxidize (burn) the sugar to release the energy stored in it so that this energy can be used for the organism's life activities. This reaction is call exothermic - or exergonic- since energy is released from the reaction. It should be remembered that this energy came from the sun initially. This reaction is aerobic since oxygen is used. 
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O

    Opposite reaction to photosynthesis. We take in sugar and Oxygen and release Carbon Dioxide that the plants take in.
  45. Exothermic (exergonic) Reaction
    energy is released from the action
  46. Aerobic
    oxygen is used
  47. 4. Fermentation
    • The process by which some organisms break down sugar without using any oxygen (anaerobic) to release energy. An example of this is yeast using sugar in grape juice to obtain a little energy for living and releasing carbon dioxide and alcohol as a waste. This is also an exothermic reaction since energy is released.
    • C6H12O6 ---> 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH (plus a little energy)
  48. 5. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    • Molecules found in all forms of life which can serve for storing energy (like little storage batteries). Each ATP molecule has 3 phosphates in it, the last two attached by high energy bonds. When one is broken away, ATP becomes ADP (di-phosphate) with less energy. When another is broken away ADP becomes AMP (mono-phosphate) with only one phosphate left. This molecule can then be charged up by the burning of sugar and using the energy released to reattach the phosphates which were broken away earlier. 
    • Respiration: 38 ATPs for every sugar molecule
    • Fermentation: 2 ATPs for every sugar molecule
  49. P/R Ration
    The ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in autotrophs. Respiration continues day and night in green plants while photosynthesis can only operate during the daytime and stops at night. The point where both reactions are equal is known ass the compensation point and the P/R value is 1
  50. Compensation point
    the points where the two lines intersect, both reactions are equal