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The scientific study of behavior and mental process.
Rational investigation of being and knowing.
Use of systematic methods to observe, describe behavior, predict, and explain behavior.
What are the 4 goals of Psychology?
- 1. Describe (what)
- 2. Explain (why)
- 3. Predict (when)
- 4. Control (how)
Where and when was the first Psychology Lab?
Leipzig Germany in 1879
Who was the man who opened the first Psy Lab?
Wilhelm Wundt 1832-1920
Take a lime. What are the 3 elements of consciousness?
- Shape (round)
- Color (green)
- Texture (bumpy)
Who is E.B. Titchener?
- Student of Wundt
- Brought Psy in the form of STRUCTURALISM to America in 1892.
- Studied at Cornell Uni in Ithaca, NY
Where is the other first Psy lab and who opened it?
- Harvard- Late 1870s
- William James 1842-1920
- James brought FUNCTIONALISM to psy studies.
Mas Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler
Believed that people seek out patterns (wholes) in sensory information, then separate elements of consciousness to result in a false picture.
The theory and therapy that is based on Sigmund Freud's (1856-1939) idea that unconscious conflicts are determinant of behavior and that early childhood forms out personality.
Classical Conditioning (Behavioral Approach)
When two stimuli are associated, an involuntary behavior (reflex) is elicited.
Environment Controlling (Behavioral Approach)
John B. Watson believed that humans are born blank and the environment the baby grows up in determines the child's personality.
Operant Conditioning (Behavioral Approach)
B.F. Skinner believed that rewards and punishment shaped the VOLUNTARY behavior.
Observational Learning (Behavioral Approach)
Albert Bandura believed that people learn a behavior by watching other's behaviors.
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow believe humans can choose their own personality and destiny because humans have the strength and abilities to choose.
Herbet Simon, Alber Ellis, Aaron Beck
- Cognitive: Ability To Think
- Memory, Intelligence, Perception, Problem-solving, and Learning.
- Attribute human and animals behavior to BIOLOGICAL events.
- Genes, Chemicals(hormones), Chemicals in nervous system.
Relationship between social behavior and culture.
Other behaviors effect behaviors, and cultures effect behaviors.
- Medical Doctor (M.D.)
- Can prescribe medication
- Do not typically provide "psychotherapy" as the once did.
- Doctor of Psychology (PhD or PsyD)
- Do NOT prescribe medication
- Provides psychotherapy.
Areas of Specializartion
- Clinical- Mild to severe psy disorders (M.D.)
- Counseling- less severe disorders(Masters)
- Educational- learning and development (teach and research)-(College Levels)
- School- Tests kids for educational placement(Determine learning disabilities)
Areas of Specialization:
- Experimental- Research of psychological concepts
- Social- Study of group behavior and influences.
- Physiological- Study of biological bases of behavior
- Developmental- Studies how people change throughout life. (Physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, relational)
What are the 3 largest sub-fields of Psychology (Areas of Specialization)
- Clinical - 34%
- Counseling- 13%
- Developmental- 12%
What is the Scientific Method?
A way to collect data while controlling the chance of error and bias when observing behavior.
- A way to rest or verify claims or theories.
Step 1 of scientific research: Conceptualize the Problem
Notice an event and ask "Why?"
Example: Kids are more aggressive after watching cartoons on Saturday. Why?
Step 2 of scientific research: Form a Hypothesis
A educated guess as explanation for "Why?"
Example: Kids who watch violent cartoons will be more aggressive.
Step 3 of scientific research: Test the Hypothesis
- Test your hypothesis and collect all data.
- Example: One of my kids watched violent cartoons in one room while my other kid watched "nice" cartoons. After watching T.V. collect and record your data.
Step 4 of scientific research: Draw Conclutions
- Data collected is analyzed.
- If your hypothesis is supported you can make educated guesses about the future.
Step 5 of scientific research: Report!
Report all findings and revise your theories!
Define population (step 3 of scientific research)
The entire group of people about which the investigator wanted to draw conclusions.
Define Sample (step 3 of S.R.)
A subset of the population chosen at random for the study.
Samples should be random and representative.
(Random kids are selected to watch diffrent cartoons at random.)
When samples are not random, the study is less valid.
Is only possible if the sample truly represents the population.
This is the ultimate goal of research!
3 ways to collect data:
- Lab observation:
- Occurs in psy lab
- may not be realistic
- Naturalistic Observation:
- Observes real world behavior
- very little control
- Subjects may act differently
- Does not reveal cause and effect
- Interviews and Questions:
- Costs effective and easy to conduct.
- People may be reluctant to admit embarrassing information
3 types of research:
- Descriptive- Serves to observe & record behavior/events.
- Correlational: Describes the strength of a relationship between two variables.
- Experimental: Scientific procedure in which one or more factors believe to influence behavior are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
- Goal: Describe the strength of relationship between two variables.
- The stronger the relationship, the more effect one variable predicts.
- Relationship is expressed as a numerical value called a correlational coefficient ranging from +10to-1.0
Sign: (+/-) indicated the direction of the relationship (positive/negitive)
Size: Of the the # indicates the strength of the relationship. (stronger when closer to +10 or -1.0 and weaker the closer to 0)
When increases/decreases in one variable are matched by +/- in the other.
: When + in one variable are matched by - in the other one.
- Example: Positive when you record the number of yawns in the class to the lecture length. You are increasing the "boring" so you are increasing the yawns!
- Negative when you record the number of student attention to a lecture. You are still making the "boring" lecture go up, so the attention goes down.
- Scientific exploration of relationships between variables.
- Independent Variables (IV): The variable that is being manipulated (changed)
- Dependent Variable (DV): The variable that changes because you changed the IV
- Experimental Group:The group whose experience has be changed.
- Control Group: Where there was no change.