ap2 exam1 review

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ap2 exam1 review
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2013-01-25 00:40:56
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  1. All of the following statements are true regarding the heart except?
    A. contraction is initiated by a nerve impulse
    B. the heart contains a number of cells w/ an unstable membrane potential
    C. the heart contains a number of cells with a stable membrane potential
    D. impulses are conducted from one muscle cell to the next
    A. contraction initiated by nerve impulses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The sinoatrial node is the pacemaker for the heart because the SA node ...
    SA node has highest rate of automatic discharge
  3. An independence of the P waves and the QRS complexes of the ECG indicates ...
    a failure of the AV node to conduct
  4. If the end-diastolic ventricular volumes are increased (within physiologic limits) then..
    the stroke volume would be increase
  5. One of the factors that controls the force of heart contraction is the ...
    initial length (preload) of cardiaccc muscle fibers
  6. Positive inotropism refers to 
    increased contractility of the heart
  7. The effect of parasympathetic nervous stimulation on the heart is ...
    slowing of the heart
  8. The P waves of a normal EKG is associated with...
    atrial contraction
  9. Which of the following mechanism is most important for maintaining an increased blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise...

    A. increase an aortic pressure
    B. increase in mean pressure
    C. a vasoconstriction in the splanchnic and renal areas
    D. muscle vessel vasodilation
    D. muscle vessel vasodilatation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following evens is represented on the EKG...
    A. Depolarization of Bachmann's Bundle
    B. His Bundle depolarization
    C. SA node depolarization
    D. Atrial muscle depolarization
    E. AV node depolarization
    D. atrial muscle depolarization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. An EKG is recorded and it displays no P waves, but a normal appearing QRS and T wave. The pacemaker most likely is located in the...
    a. SA node
    b. AV node
    c. His bundle
    d. Purkinje system
    e. Ventricular muscle
    AV node
  12. Which of the following best describes conditions consistent with increased contractility?

    a. increased cardiac output for a given end-systolic volume

    b. increased cardiac output for a given end-diastolic volume

    c. decreased cardiac output for a given end-sys

    d. decreased cardiac output for a give end-dias
    b. increased cardiac out put for a given end-diastolic volume
  13. The tendency to form edema will be increased by ..

    arteriolar constriction
    increased venous pressure
    increased plasma protein concentration
    dehydration
    increased venous pressure
  14. Myocardial contractility is best correlated with the intracellular concentration of 
    a. NA+
    b. K+
    c. CA++
    d. Cl-
    e. Mg++
    Ca++
  15. Cardiac output of the right heart is what percentage of the left heart?

    25
    50
    75
    100
    125
    100%
  16. The greatest pressure drop in the circulation occurs across the arterioles because..
    A. they velocity of blood flow through them is highest
    B. they have the greatest surface area
    C. they have the greatest cross-sectional area
    D. they have the greatest resistance
    E. the velocity of blood flow through them is lowest
    D. they have the greatest resistance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. During rapid acceleration, as a fighter pilot might experience , the pooling of blood in the extremities will...

    A. decrease venous blood volume
    B. increase venous return
    C. increase cardiact output
    D. decrease arterial blood pressure
    D. decrease arterial blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The reflex organization of the cardiovascular system is designed to principally maintain..
    A. constant arteriolar reisstance
    B. constant oxygen delivery
    C. constant pressure
    D. constant cardiac output
    C. constant pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The physiological function of the relatively slow conduction through the AV node is to allow sufficient time for..
    filing of the ventricles
  20. The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is locate in the 
    interatrial septum
  21. If communication between the SA node and the AV node becomes blocked which is most certain affected:
    A. ventricles will contract at a slower rate
    B. the atria will contract at a slower rate
    C. stroke volume will increase
    D. afterload will increase
    e. all of the above
    A. ventricle contract slower rate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. A valve damaged by rheumatic fever is stiffened and fails to open completely. This is called?
    stenosis
  23. Blood returning from the lungs enters the heart through the ...
    left atrium
  24. According to Starling's Law of the heart, cardiac output is directly related to:
    A. the heart rate
    B. end-systolic volume
    C. the size of the ventricles
    D. amount of blood returning to the heart
    E. cardiac reserve
    D. amount of blood returning to the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The T wave on an ECG represents:
    ventricular repolarization
  26. Cardiac output is equal to :

    EDV-EsV
    EDV-SVxHR
    HRxSV
    hrXBP
    HRxSV
  27. During ventricular systole:
  28. In general, veins exhibit this characteristic when compared to arteries:
  29. thinner walled
  30. The blood vessels that play the most important role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the :
    arterioles 
  31. As blood travels from the aorta to the capillaries:

    A. velocity increases
    B. resistance increases
    C. flow increase
    D. prssure increases
    E. viscosity increases
    B. resistance increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. A patient with a hypothalamic tumor caues excessive ADH secretion, when her blood pressure is taken which of the following readings would you expect:
    95/65
    115/80
    120/65
    165/100
    165/100
  33. The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the: 
    A. end-ventricular pressure
    B. pulse pressure
    C. mean arterial blood pressure
    D. blood pressure
    B. pulse pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. What would happen to cardiac muscle contractility and ecitability in the presence of drus that specifically block Ca channels in the plasma membrane? 
    They would both decrease
  35. Caffeine causes the SR to release Ca and also has effects on cAMP metabolism. What might caffeine do to the heart's contraction?
    increase contractility
  36. Offer explanations for why epinephrine increases: contraction strength and rate of relaxation. 
    It increase contractile strength by increasing intercellular calcium levels.

    We did not discuss effects on relaxation so do not worry about it. 
  37. Why can't the heart contract tetanically?
    because cells have a long refractory period
  38. which of the following cause Na channels in heart muscle to open?
    ?hyperpolarization or depolarization? or both
  39. What provide nutrition to the heart muscle cells?
    coronary blood vessels
  40. t/f 

    cutting the vagus nerve causes the heart to speed up. explain
    True. Vagal stimulation causes the resting heart rate to be lower than the intrinsic rate of the SA node. If the vagus is severed, this influence is lost and heart rate will rise to this intrinsic rate which is about 100 bpm
  41. if the end diastolic volume is 200 mls, and the end systolic volume is 130 mls, what is the stroke volume?
    70 mls
  42. t/f Stroke volume of the left ventricles is larger than the right ventricles
    false
  43. if the end disastolic volume is 100mls and the ejction fraction is 70% , what is the stroke volume?
    70 mls
  44. In cardiac muscle, the depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of 
    increased membrane permeability to sodium ions
  45. In cardiac muscles

    a. calcium ions are not released from the sacroplasmic reticulum

    b. calcium ions do not bind to troponin molecules

    c. calcium ions play no role in the process of contraction

    d. at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell
    d. at least half of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell
  46. The following are various components of the conducting system of the heart.
    1. Purkinje fibers
    2. AV bundle
    3. AV node
    4. SA node
    5. bundle branches

    action move thru this system in sequence..
    • 43251
    • sa node - av node - av bundle -bundle branch - purkinje fibers
  47. depolarization of the ventricles is represented on the electrocardiogram by the 
    QRS complex
  48. The 1st heart sound is heard when the 
    av valves close
  49. during the cardiac cycle, the

    a. P wave of the ECG occurs between the 1st and 2nd heart sounds.

    b. QRS complex of the ECG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure. 

    c. third heart sound occurs during atrial systole

    d. second heart sound coincides with the QRS complex of the ECG
    E both A&C
    b. QRS complex of the ECG precedes the increase in ventricular pressure
  50. During the isovolumetric phase of ventricular systole, the
    a. atria are contracting and the ventricles are relaxing

    b. atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves are closed

    c. blood is ejected into the great vessels
    d. all of above
    e. b and c only
    b. atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves are closed
  51. each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except?
    A. increased venous return
    B. increased parasympathetic stimulation
    C. increased symphathetic stimulation
    B. increased prasympathetic stimulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. According to Starling's law of the heart, the cardiac output is directly related to the 
    venous return
  53. each of the following conditions would increase heart rate except...
    a. increaed sympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers

    b. increased parasympathetic stiumulation of nodal fibers

    c. increased levels of epinephrine in the interstitial fluid surrounding the myocardium


    d. increased permeability of the myocardial membrane to sodium ion

    e. activation of cAMP in heart muscle
    b. increased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers
  54. The pericardial fluid is important because it
    • act as lubrication
    • reduces friction
    • acts as a cushion
    • all of the above
  55. damage to the chordate tendinae in the left ventricle may result in...
    A. bicuspid prolapse
    B. mitral regurgitation
    C. mitral valves prolapse
    D. biscuspi regurgitation
    E. all
    E. all
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. if an action potential is initiated in the AV node, you would expect the heart to be ..... beats per mins.
    40-60
  57. Tetanic muscle contraction cannot occur in a normal cardiac muscle cell becuase
    the refractory period lasts until the muscles cell relaxes
  58. the amount of blood that is forced out of the heart depends on ..
    a. degree of stretching at the end of ventricular diastole
    b. the contractility of the ventricles
    c. the amount of pressure required to eject blood
    d. a and b
    e. a,b,c
    abc
  59. During ventricular systole, the 

    a. atria are contracting
    b. blood is entering the ventricular
    c. av valves are closed
    d. pressure in the ventricles declines
    e. ventricles are relaxed
    AV valves are closed
  60. which of the following greater?
    a. concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle
    b. the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle
    a. in skeletal muscle
  61. drugs known as calcium channel blockers can be used to...
    decrease the force of cardiac contraction
  62. cardiac output would be greatest when..
    sympathetic stimulation of the heart increases
  63. which of following would b greater?
    a. stroke volume when extracellular calcium ion concentrations are high
    b. stroke volume when extravellular calcium ion concentrations are low
    a. stroke volume when extracellular calcium ion concentrations are high
  64. which of the following would be greater?
    a. the end-diastolic volume when the heart rate is 150 beats/min

    b. the end-dastolic volume when the heart rae is 90 beats/ min
  65. b. 
  66. Abnormally slow conduction through the ventricles would change the shape of the ... in an ECG tracing.
    QRS complex

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