Radiology Review #1

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eryn3115
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195195
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Radiology Review #1
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2013-01-26 19:17:45
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Radiology Review Biology Protection
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Radiology Review Biology Protection
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  1. Energy is transit from one location to another:
    Radiation
  2. Radiation that produces negatively and positive charged particles when passing though matter:
    Ionizing Radiation
  3. Any process that decreases the intensity of the primary photon beam directed toward some destination:
    Attenuation
  4. Transfer of energy from the x-ray beam to atoms or molecules from which it passes:
    absorption
  5. annual natural exposure:
    295mrem/yr or 2.95msv
  6. man made annual exposure:
    65 mrem/yr or .65 msv
  7. medical/dental annual exposure:
    • 40 mrem/yr or .4 msv
    • -largest account for man made exposures.
  8. Total annual radiation exposure:
    360 mrem/yr or 3.6 msv
  9. non fluoro exam with greatest gonad dose:
    L-spine
  10. How to calculate cumulative dose equivalent:
    age in years X rem (10 msv)
  11. Going from mrem to msv:
    Going from rem to msv:
    divide by 100

    multiply by 10
  12. Occupational annual dose:
    5 rem or 50 msv
  13. Occupational annual eye dose:
    15 rem or 150 msv
  14. Occupational annual dose for skin, eyes, feet:
    50 rem or 500 msv
  15. public annual dose for frequent exposure:
    .1 rem or 1msv
  16. Public annual dose for infrequent exposure:
    .5 rem or 5msv
  17. Total dose for fetal annually:
    .5 rem or 5 msv
  18. monthly annual dose for fetal:
    .05 rem or .5 msv
  19. 5 types of interaction in matter:
    • coherent
    • photoelectric
    • compton
    • pair production
    • photodisintegration
  20. Coherent:
    • -when x-rays interact with target atom
    • -change in direction, but no change in energy
  21. Photoelectric:
    • -When x-ray interact with inner K shell
    • -absorption of energy and increase in patient dose and biological damage.
  22. Compton:
    -responsible for most scatter in radiology procedures.
  23. To measure exposure use:
    roentgen, or colomb per kg
  24. To measure absorbed dose use:
    RAD or Gray
  25. To measure absorbed dose equivalent use:
    REM or sievert
  26. Dose Equivalent:
    Provides a way to calculate the absorbed dose for all types of radiation.
  27. Quality Factor:
    Used in the dose equivalent to determine ability of ionizing radiation to cause biological damage.
  28. The formula for dose equivalent is:
    DE=AD x Qf (absorbed dose times quality factor)
  29. To determine quality factor:
    QF divided by radiation
  30. x-ray photons, beta particles and gamma photons have a quality factor of:
    1
  31. neutrons and alpha particles have a quality factor of:
    20
  32. Formula for effective dose:
    EFD=Dose x Wr x Wt
  33. Difference between equivalent dose and effective dose:
    • equivalent dose pertains to biologic harm of different types of radiation.
    • Effective dose pertains to harm of a person with tissues, and organs.
  34. Reduces exposure to patients skin and superficial tissue by absorbing most of the lower energy photons:
    filtration
  35. aluminum has a z number of:
    13
  36. The most common material used for absorption is:
    aluminum
  37. inherent filtration should be:
    .5 mm al eq
  38. added filtration is located:
    outside the glass window and above the collimator shutters.
  39. total filtration above 70 kvp:
    2.5 mm al eq
  40. total filtration b/w 50-70 kvp:
    1.5 mm al eq
  41. total filtration for fluoro and mobile equitment:
    2.5 mm al eq
  42. mammo filtration usually uses:
    molybdeium or rhodium
  43. Gonadal shielding should be used when:
    reproductive organs are w/n 5 cm of the beam
  44. High speed film combination results in:
    less patient dose, but loss in detail
  45. Grids and patient dose:
    increase
  46. Fluoro unit SID (fixed unit):
    no less than 15 inches
  47. Fluoro unit SID (mobile unit):
    no less than 12 inches
  48. cumulative timing device:
    times fluoro unit to shut off after 5 min.
  49. exposure rate maximum for image intensified units in fluoro:
    10 R/min
  50. exposure rate maximum for conventional non intensified units:
    5 R/min
  51. cinefluorography:
    highest patient dose of all radiographic procedures.
  52. primary barriers are located:
    perpendicular to the line of travel from the primary beam
  53. @ 130 kVp protective barrier should be:
    1/16th inch lead and 7 feet upward from floor to x-ray wall
  54. Secondary protective barrier should be:
    1/32nd inch lead
  55. exposure rate in a controlled area should not exceed:
    100 mr/week
  56. exposure rate in an uncontrolled area should not exceed:
    10 mr/ week
  57. Percentage of time the useful beam is directed towards a particular wall:
    use factor
  58. ESE of chest w/ grid:
    20 mrad
  59. ESE of AP lumbar spine:
    350 mrad
  60. ESE of KUB:
    300 mrad
  61. ESE of AP C spine:
    80 mrad
  62. barrier thickness of lead glass window:
    1.5 mm al eq
  63. barrier thickness of protective drape or curtain:
    .25 mm al eq
  64. barrier thickness of gloves:
    .25 mm al eq
  65. thyroid shield barrier thickness:
    .5 mm al eq
  66. protective glasses barrier thickness:
    .35 mm al eq
  67. 4 types of personel monitoring devices:
    • film badge
    • TLD
    • OSL
    • Pocket dosimeter
  68. TLD:
    • -measures radiation from low as 5 mR
    • -uses lithium flouride
  69. Film badge:
    -measures radiation from 10 mR
  70. OSL:
    • measures radiation as low as 1 mR
    • -uses aluminum oxide
  71. pocket dosimeter:
    measures radiation as low as 1 mR
  72. Stochastic effects of radiation:
    • -AKA late effects, or random effects
    • -are nonthreshold
    • -examples is cancer and genetic alterations
  73. nonstochastic effects of radiation:
    • -AKA deterministic effects
    • -they are directly related to the dose recieved
    • -they can be an early or late effect
  74. The amount at which ionizing radiation is transferred to soft tissue:
    LET
  75. High LET:
    • -example is alpha particles
    • -loses energy faster than low LET
  76. Low LET:
    • -examples is x-rays and gamma rays
    • -cause damage primarily through indirect interaction
    • -and keep energy longer
  77. Provides a comparison of the biologic effects from equal doses of different types of radiation.
    RBE
  78. Tissue is more sensitive when irradiated in the oxygenated state than when irradiated under anoxic or hypoxic conditions.
    OER
  79. RBE and LET have a _______ relationship:
    direct
  80. OER formula:
    OER=OER w/o formula divided by OER w/ formula
  81. DNA serves as the master molecule of the cell. If the master molecule is inactivated by exposure to radiation then the cell will die.
    Target theory
  82. Radiosensitivity is directly proportional to their reproductivity and inversly proportional to their differentation.
    Law of bergonie and tribidoneu
  83. Most sensitive to least sensitive cells:
    • lymphocytes
    • spermatogonia
    • platelts
    • epithelial cells
    • muscle
    • nerve cells
  84. In the radiation dose response relationship the horizontal axsis is/ vertical axsis:
    dose recieved

    effects observed
  85. Proportional response to the dose and response and the curve forms a straight line when graphed.
    linear
  86. Response where there is no fixed proportional response b/w dose and response and forms a curved line.
    nonlinear
  87. Dose response curve exhibits some effect no matter how small the dose:
    linear nonthreshold
  88. Dose response cure that is linear or proportional at low dose levels and becomes curvlinear at high dose levels.
    linear-quadratic threshold
  89. radiation threshold is a what response:
    sigmoid threshold
  90. Stages of acute radiation syndrome:
    prodromal, latent, manifest illness
  91. Syndromes of acute radiation syndrome:
    • hematopoietic
    • gastrointestinal
    • CNS
  92. hematologic syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
    • 1-10gy
    • 100-1000 rad
  93. GI syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
    500-1000 rad
  94. CNS syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
    5,000 rad or more
  95. Dose of radiation required per generation to double the spontanious rate:
    doubling dose
  96. annual GSD of all radiation sources is:
    130 mrem or  1.3 msv
  97. Largest account for GSD is:
    background radiation; 78%
  98. Occurs when a total radiation dose is delivered in smaller amounts and spread over a period of time
    dose fractionation
  99. Occurs when the dose is delivered continously but at a slow rate
    dose protraction

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