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1. Energy is transit from one location to another:
2. Radiation that produces negatively and positive charged particles when passing though matter:
3. Any process that decreases the intensity of the primary photon beam directed toward some destination:
Attenuation
4. Transfer of energy from the x-ray beam to atoms or molecules from which it passes:
absorption
5. annual natural exposure:
295mrem/yr or 2.95msv
65 mrem/yr or .65 msv
7. medical/dental annual exposure:
• 40 mrem/yr or .4 msv
• -largest account for man made exposures.
360 mrem/yr or 3.6 msv
9. non fluoro exam with greatest gonad dose:
L-spine
10. How to calculate cumulative dose equivalent:
age in years X rem (10 msv)
11. Going from mrem to msv:
Going from rem to msv:
divide by 100

multiply by 10
12. Occupational annual dose:
5 rem or 50 msv
13. Occupational annual eye dose:
15 rem or 150 msv
14. Occupational annual dose for skin, eyes, feet:
50 rem or 500 msv
15. public annual dose for frequent exposure:
.1 rem or 1msv
16. Public annual dose for infrequent exposure:
.5 rem or 5msv
17. Total dose for fetal annually:
.5 rem or 5 msv
18. monthly annual dose for fetal:
.05 rem or .5 msv
19. 5 types of interaction in matter:
• coherent
• photoelectric
• compton
• pair production
• photodisintegration
20. Coherent:
• -when x-rays interact with target atom
• -change in direction, but no change in energy
21. Photoelectric:
• -When x-ray interact with inner K shell
• -absorption of energy and increase in patient dose and biological damage.
22. Compton:
-responsible for most scatter in radiology procedures.
23. To measure exposure use:
roentgen, or colomb per kg
24. To measure absorbed dose use:
25. To measure absorbed dose equivalent use:
REM or sievert
26. Dose Equivalent:
Provides a way to calculate the absorbed dose for all types of radiation.
27. Quality Factor:
Used in the dose equivalent to determine ability of ionizing radiation to cause biological damage.
28. The formula for dose equivalent is:
DE=AD x Qf (absorbed dose times quality factor)
29. To determine quality factor:
30. x-ray photons, beta particles and gamma photons have a quality factor of:
1
31. neutrons and alpha particles have a quality factor of:
20
32. Formula for effective dose:
EFD=Dose x Wr x Wt
33. Difference between equivalent dose and effective dose:
• equivalent dose pertains to biologic harm of different types of radiation.
• Effective dose pertains to harm of a person with tissues, and organs.
34. Reduces exposure to patients skin and superficial tissue by absorbing most of the lower energy photons:
filtration
35. aluminum has a z number of:
13
36. The most common material used for absorption is:
aluminum
37. inherent filtration should be:
.5 mm al eq
outside the glass window and above the collimator shutters.
39. total filtration above 70 kvp:
2.5 mm al eq
40. total filtration b/w 50-70 kvp:
1.5 mm al eq
41. total filtration for fluoro and mobile equitment:
2.5 mm al eq
42. mammo filtration usually uses:
molybdeium or rhodium
43. Gonadal shielding should be used when:
reproductive organs are w/n 5 cm of the beam
44. High speed film combination results in:
less patient dose, but loss in detail
45. Grids and patient dose:
increase
46. Fluoro unit SID (fixed unit):
no less than 15 inches
47. Fluoro unit SID (mobile unit):
no less than 12 inches
48. cumulative timing device:
times fluoro unit to shut off after 5 min.
49. exposure rate maximum for image intensified units in fluoro:
10 R/min
50. exposure rate maximum for conventional non intensified units:
5 R/min
51. cinefluorography:
highest patient dose of all radiographic procedures.
52. primary barriers are located:
perpendicular to the line of travel from the primary beam
53. @ 130 kVp protective barrier should be:
1/16th inch lead and 7 feet upward from floor to x-ray wall
54. Secondary protective barrier should be:
55. exposure rate in a controlled area should not exceed:
100 mr/week
56. exposure rate in an uncontrolled area should not exceed:
10 mr/ week
57. Percentage of time the useful beam is directed towards a particular wall:
use factor
58. ESE of chest w/ grid:
59. ESE of AP lumbar spine:
60. ESE of KUB:
61. ESE of AP C spine:
62. barrier thickness of lead glass window:
1.5 mm al eq
63. barrier thickness of protective drape or curtain:
.25 mm al eq
64. barrier thickness of gloves:
.25 mm al eq
65. thyroid shield barrier thickness:
.5 mm al eq
66. protective glasses barrier thickness:
.35 mm al eq
67. 4 types of personel monitoring devices:
• TLD
• OSL
• Pocket dosimeter
68. TLD:
• -measures radiation from low as 5 mR
• -uses lithium flouride
70. OSL:
• measures radiation as low as 1 mR
• -uses aluminum oxide
71. pocket dosimeter:
measures radiation as low as 1 mR
• -AKA late effects, or random effects
• -are nonthreshold
• -examples is cancer and genetic alterations
• -AKA deterministic effects
• -they are directly related to the dose recieved
• -they can be an early or late effect
74. The amount at which ionizing radiation is transferred to soft tissue:
LET
75. High LET:
• -example is alpha particles
• -loses energy faster than low LET
76. Low LET:
• -examples is x-rays and gamma rays
• -cause damage primarily through indirect interaction
• -and keep energy longer
77. Provides a comparison of the biologic effects from equal doses of different types of radiation.
RBE
78. Tissue is more sensitive when irradiated in the oxygenated state than when irradiated under anoxic or hypoxic conditions.
OER
79. RBE and LET have a _______ relationship:
direct
80. OER formula:
OER=OER w/o formula divided by OER w/ formula
81. DNA serves as the master molecule of the cell. If the master molecule is inactivated by exposure to radiation then the cell will die.
Target theory
82. Radiosensitivity is directly proportional to their reproductivity and inversly proportional to their differentation.
Law of bergonie and tribidoneu
83. Most sensitive to least sensitive cells:
• lymphocytes
• spermatogonia
• platelts
• epithelial cells
• muscle
• nerve cells
84. In the radiation dose response relationship the horizontal axsis is/ vertical axsis:
dose recieved

effects observed
85. Proportional response to the dose and response and the curve forms a straight line when graphed.
linear
86. Response where there is no fixed proportional response b/w dose and response and forms a curved line.
nonlinear
87. Dose response curve exhibits some effect no matter how small the dose:
linear nonthreshold
88. Dose response cure that is linear or proportional at low dose levels and becomes curvlinear at high dose levels.
89. radiation threshold is a what response:
sigmoid threshold
90. Stages of acute radiation syndrome:
prodromal, latent, manifest illness
91. Syndromes of acute radiation syndrome:
• hematopoietic
• gastrointestinal
• CNS
92. hematologic syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
• 1-10gy
93. GI syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
94. CNS syndrome occurs w/ doses of:
95. Dose of radiation required per generation to double the spontanious rate:
doubling dose
96. annual GSD of all radiation sources is:
130 mrem or  1.3 msv
97. Largest account for GSD is: