The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproduction

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The interplay of tropic and sex hormones regulates mammalian reproduction
2013-01-25 09:09:38
BIO 220

Chapter 46
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  1. a.      In both male and female humans, the coordinated actions of hormones from the ___, __, and __ govern __
    • hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and gonads
    • reproduction
  2. What does the hypothalamus secrete?
    Hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which directs the anterior pituitary to secrete the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone and leutenizing hormone
  3. What do FSH and LH regulate?
    1.      These two hormones regulate Gametogenesis directly, by targeting tissues in gonads, and indirectly, by regulating sex hormone production
  4. Principle sex hormones: __, which regulate both directly and indirectly

    •                                                               i.      Females: estrogens, especially estradiol and progesterone
    •                                                             ii.       males: androgens, especially testosterone
  5. Functions of sex hormones besides promoting gamete : androgens
    male vocalization
  6. 1.      During development of human embryo, androgens promote the __ of males, the structures directly involved in reproduction
    a.      These include the __ and __, and __
    • appearance of the primary sex characteristics
    • seminal vesicles and associated ducts, and external reproductive anatomy 
  7.                                                               i.      At puberty, sex hormones in both males and females induce formation of __, the physical and behavioral features 
    secondary sex characteristics
  8. 1. Males: androgens= __(3)__ (by stimulating protein synthesis)
    a. Promote __ and __ and increase __
    • deeper voice, facial and pubes development, muscle growth
    • sexual behaviors
    • sex drive
    • aggressiveness
  9. 2. Females: estrogen= estradiol stimulates __ development and female __, induces__in the breast and hips, increases __, and alters __ 
    • breast and pubes development
    • sex behavior
    •  fat deposition
    • water retention
    • calcium metabolism