Geology Unit 1 part 2

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Geology Unit 1 part 2
2013-01-25 13:57:28
Asteroids Geology Galaxy Solar System

Part 2 of Geology Unit 1
Show Answers:

  1. Compare the mass of all tens of thousands of asteroids to the mass of a nearly heavenly body.
    The mass of all of the asteroids is less than the mass of our moon. They do not represent a destroyed planet!
  2. Why is it so difficult to obtain close-up photograph many asteroids with a single space probe passing through the asteroid belt?
    The asteroids are so relatively small and are so far apart that it is difficult to photograph more than one asteroid per probe. We now have close-up pictures of eight asteroids.
  3. On which near Earth-orbit asteroid, has the US safely landed a space probe?
    In 2001, the US has softly landed the NEAR Shoemaker Space Probe  on the Near Earth Orbit (NEO) crossing asertroid Eros. Maybe we could land on and divert an Earth-bound asteroid.
  4. What is the significance of us successfully landing on a asteroid (thinking question)
    About a dozen scientist in the world are assigned to look for potential Earth-impacting asteroids and rocky masses. However, in 2007, Congress cut most of the funding from this program.
  5. What might have been the results if one of those large Shoemaker-Levy comet fragments had impacted the earth? What comparison do we have?
    In 1994, we have witnessed the frgmented Come Shoemaker-Levy colliding with Jupiter, leaving multiple Earth-sized "burns" on the giant planet.
  6. What is the speed of light in mph? What travels faster than light?
    Light travels at 186,000 miles/second, thus light takes 8.3 minutes to travel from the sun to the Earth. We use the term-light year- for star distances. A light year is the distance that light would travel within a year. Nothing travels faster than light!
  7. What is the ultimate fate of our sun and Earth in about 5 billion years?
    In about 5 billion years, our Sun will become a red giant by expanding until it nearly envelopes the Earth.
  8. What is an exoplanet? How many have been found to be Earth-sized?
    Exoplanets are planets outside the solar system. there are more than 817 known exoplanets (Dec 2012), surrounding more than 642 stars (this number increases almost every month). We do have a few telescope pictures of exoplanets (star HR 8977)
  9. Approximately how many planets have been "certified" to exist outside of our solar system?
    The number of possible planets in our galaxy may exceed 160 billion.
  10. Which two methods are used to detect most of the exoplanets, found outside of our solar system?
    The transit method, which means the dimming of star light by a passing planet. so far, the Kepler Space Telescope has found over 2,321 candidates for exoplanets (July 2012)
  11. Within our galaxy are vast "clouds" of dust and molecules called ______.
  12. From the above sentence (question 11) what is the composition of some of these molecules?
    Nebula can contain more than 180 known molecules, including water, various minerals, ammonia, methanol (alcohol), formaldehyde, cyanide (a poison) and simple amino acids and protein chains!
  13. What is the name of the home galaxy for Earth?
    The Milky Way Galaxy
  14. There are many different shapes of galaxies; what type of galaxy shape is home for our galaxy?
    Today we think that the Milky Way Galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy, one that contains a long "bar of stars" with a number of spiral arms extending from that bar.
  15. Approximately how many stars may be found within our home galaxy?
    Our galaxy contains 200 billion stars. 
  16. What is the name of the nearest gaint galaxy to Earth's galaxy?
    The Andromeda Galaxy (2.5 million light years away) is Earth's nearest large spiral galxy and isfrom 2 to 5 times the diameter of the Milky way Galaxy. (Exact size and mass still under debate.)
  17. Explain the relative movements of these two above galaxies with each other and their ultimate fate.
    • both galaxies are on intercepting paths and will collide with each other in less than 5 billion years. (Unfortunately, Earth may be inside the Sun at that time)
  18. What is the classification name used for very large groups of galaxies?
  19. What is the classification name used for very large groups of clusters of galaxies.
    Super clusters
  20. How many scientific organizations recognize star names given by commercial star-naming organizations?
    Such commercial star registries are of course ignored by science.
  21. Compare the sun and Earth (using relative sizes of an orange and sand grain) with the relative distances between them. Also using oranges, compare relative distances of our Sun and Alpha Centuri.
    The sand grain would be 30 feet away from the orange. Proxima Centuri would be a smaller orange and would be 1,000 miles away from the larger orange 
  22. convert kilometers to miles. Which decimal number do you multiply by kilometers to convert to miles? THIS COULD BE ON EVERY TEST!
    Kilometeres to miles: Miles=kilometer 0.6 (rememer your speedometer)

    • (100km)(0.6)=(60 miles)
    • (100km/hr=60 miles/hr)
  23. In miles, what is the Earth's approximate diameter?
    Earth's diameter is 7,600 miles or about 8,000 miles.
  24. In miles, what is the Earth's approximate circumference?
    Earth's circumference is about 24,000 miles.
  25. What is the Sun's approximate diameter in miles?
    The sun's diameter is more than 800,000 miles.
  26. What caused Earth's atmosphere to change from its original composition?
    Ancient bacteria created the free oxygen that we now have on Earth.
  27. What is the approximate composition of today's Earth atmosphere? (What do you breath in?)
    Today's atmosphere is 78% Nitrogen; 21% Oxygen.
  28. What happened to most of Earth's original carbon dioxide-where is it trapped (rock type)?
    Microscopic plants and animals have trapped a major percentage of Earth's orginal atmosphereric Carbon dioxide by creating the rock limestone.
  29. From space, what would be the easiest method to visually detect man's presence on Earth?
    The only method to detect man's presence from space is the "light pollution" seen from the dark side of the Earth. This probably represents a lot of wasted energy resources.
  30. Life had an actual impact on Earth. In which three ways did ancient life impact Earth? (i.e. types of rocks, energy sources, atmosphere, etc.)
    • 1.) Early forms of bacteria and plants produced our oxygen atmosphere.
    • 2.)thick limestone deposits werecreated from ocean plant and animal life. 
    • 3.)Fossil plant and animal organisms are responsible for our fossil fuels like coal and oil and gas.
  31. Which two "crusts" make up Earth's rocky surface layer (above the sea and below the sea?)
    • Continental crust: "Less dense" rocks generally found above the ocean floors.
    • Oceanic crust: "More dense" rocks generally found below the ocean floors.
  32. What significance might plate tectonic have on the shape of our current continents? (thinking question)
    It's what shapes the surface of the Earth like hills and rivers. 
  33. What type of relative plate motion is associated with a divergent plate boundary?
    Transform (Fault) Boundary: When plates slide past each other; famous example is the San Andreas Fault. Transform faults are "created" by divergent zones because Earth is a sphere.
  34. What effect can a divergent zone have on an ocean? (thinking question)
    Since the divergent zone pulls apart, it can help make bodies of water like an ocean get wider. 
  35. What type of relative plate motion is associated with a transform plate boundary or  what are the plates doing?
    The convergent zone plate boundary is associated because it's plates would meet or collide, forming a subduction zone. 
  36. What type of relative plate motion is associated with a convergent plate boundary? (What are the plates doing?)
    Associated with the convergent plate boundary would be the divergent plate boundary. Since the divergent play boundary pulls apart, the plates would meet in another place.
  37. Label transform, convergent and divergent plate boundaries, such as that on the study guide sketch.
    • Divergent: zone where plates are pushed apart. These boundaries are also called rift zones.
    • Transform: when plates slide past each other.
    • Convergent: place where moving plates meet or collide, forming a dubduction zone.