Scott's Test-Ch. 14

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RadTherapy
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195241
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Scott's Test-Ch. 14
Updated:
2013-01-25 13:26:59
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purple book
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Description:
pg. 277-285
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  1. What is the transmitted energy in the form of electromagnetic(EM) waves?
    Radiation
  2. The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element is called?
    Atom
  3. The force responsible for interaction between particles with nonzero mass and has infinite range?
    Gravity
  4. A short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between neutron and proton and other particles belonging to the hadrons family?
    The stong force
  5. Short-ranged force that is responsible for interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or antineutrinos?
    The weak force
  6. The ____ ____ is the strongest among the 4 forces, followded by EM force, the weak force, and the weakest being ____?
    • strong force
    • gravity
  7. What refers to the mass(weight) of the particle when it is not moving?
    Rest mass
  8. The ____ ____ ____ is defined such that the mass of an atom of carbon-12 is exactly 12.00 amu.
    atomic mass unit
  9. A fundamental property or character of subatomic particles?
    electrical charge
  10. The ____ carries no electrical charge?
    neutron
  11. Electrons surrounding the nucleus exists only in certain ____ ____ or ____?
    • energy states
    • orbits
  12. When an electron moves from one orbit with higher energy to a lower-energy orbit, the atom emits ____. The lost energy is seen as the ____ ____.
    • radiation
    • atomic spectra
  13. What determines the energy and size of the atomic orbital?
    principal quantum number
  14. No shell can contain more than its ____ number of electrons.
    maximum
  15. The outermost shell can contain no more than ____ elctrons?
    8
  16. The amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom?
    Electron's binding energy
  17. The electrons in the outermost shell of the atom are called ____ ____ and are responsible for chemical reaction and bonding of the atom with other atoms. 
    valence electrons
  18. When some energy is imparted to the electrons of the atom, the electrons will move to higher-energy empty state, called ____ ____, and the atom will then reach an unstable state. This process is called ____.
    • excited states
    • excitation
  19. If sufficient energy is given to the atom, one or more electrons of the atom can overcome its (their) binding energy and can be completely removed from the atom. This process is called ____.
    ionization
  20. What happens when a core electron is ionized?
    A vacancy in its shell is created
  21. Excess energy can knock out one of the outer electrons from the atom. Such an ejected electron is known as an ____ ____.
    Auger electron
  22. The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons tighly bound together by a force known as the? 
    strong nuclear force
  23. The number of protons in the nucleus is known as the ____ ____ of the atom.
    atomic number
  24. The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is termed?
    atomic mass number
  25. The necleus of the atom consists of protons and neutrons, which are together called?
    nucleons
  26. Protons are ____ charged particles, and neutrons are neutral with ____ electrical charge.
    • positively
    • no
  27. The ____ ____ comes into play only over very short distances.
    nuclear force
  28. The total amount of energy that it takes to hold a nucleus together is called ____ ____ ____ and its measured in megaelectron volts (MeV)
    nuclear binding energy
  29. What is the binding energy divided by the atomic mass number?
    binding energy per nucleon
  30. What is the minimum amount of energy needed to keep the nucleons together?
    ground state
  31. The emission of energy from the nucleus in the form of EM radiation or energetic particles?
    Radioactivity
  32. Any "packet" of energy traveling through space at the speed of light is a ____.
    photon
  33. Photons are a special case of a type of wave called ____ ____, which consists of an electrical field and a magnetic field traveling through space at right angles to each other.
    electromagnetic wave
  34. Photons exhibit the characteristics of a particle at times and the characteristics of a wave at other times. This is known as?
    wave-particle duality
  35. Although the ____ has no actual mass, the equation (pg. 285) allows one to treat the ____ as if it actaully had mass of its own.
    • photon
    • photon

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