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differentiate chemical properties from chemical identity.
chemical properties: how the chemical will bond
chemical identity: the number of protons of the chemical
what two ions (atoms) can water spontaneously break up into?
- OH- and H+.
- (pure water contains equal amounts of both)
what determines the PH scale (acidity) of a solution?
the amount of H+ ions.
- acids: more H+ ions
- bases: more OH- ions
differentiate acids and bases
: extremely reactive (battery, beer, etc)
- bases: not reactive, but can also be caustic (bleach)
- ** bases can neutralize solutions with acids
what are the four major classes of biological molecules?
- 1. carbohydrates (sugars)
- 2. lipids (fats)
- 3. proteins (enzymes)
- 4. nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
what smaller units are macromolecules made of?
monomers (building blocks) which can be combined to make polymers
which of the four major classes of biological molecules is the primary fuel for organisms?
carbohydrates (play an important roll in cell structure)
what are two examples of simple sugars that come from starch?
glucose and fructose (same chemical formula, arranged differently in 3D space)
what do the C-H bonds of carbohydrates do?
they break bonds and store energy.
when eating, processing starch into POLYMERS, then MONOMERS, then into energy is called CELLULAR RESPIRATION.
in cellular respiration, excess glucose is converted into what two reserves?
- 1. short term (glycogen, which is limited)
- 2. long term (fat)
what is glycogen?
- a complex carb (polymer)
- made with GLUCOSE
what are the three possible fates of glucose?
- if needed:
- broken down into ENERGY
- if not needed:
- 1. stored in short term (glycogen)
- 2. stored in long term (fat)
differentiate simple carbs from complex carbs
- simple carbs: one sugar unit, easily digested
- complex carbs: two or more sugar units, takes longer to digest
name the two types of sugars found in carbs
- 1. disaccharides: easier to break, one bond only (sucrose, lactose)
- 2. polysaccharides: long chains, not instant (starch, cellulose, glycogen)
fruit (simple carbs): instant results
rice (complex carbs): more constant blood sugar, full for longer
multiple simple carbs can link into complex carbs.
which complex carbs are not digestible?
cellulose and chitin (different bonds)
what are the soluable and insoluable kinds of fiber ("roughage")?
- soluable: attracts water, slows digestion (less hunger)
- insoluable: gut-healthy ("clean"), laxative, adds bulk
which of the biological macromolecules does not mix with water and stores much energy?
name the three kinds of lipids
- 1. fats (long term energy/ insulation)
- 2. sterols (regulate growth, development)
- 3. phospholipids (form membrane that inclose cells)
define the purpose of fats, sterols, and phospholipids
- fats: long term energy/ insulation
- sterols: regulate growth, development
- phospholipids: form membrane that inclose cells
what are the "head" and "tail" of fats composed of?
- head: glycerol
- tail: fatty acid
fats contain more energy than carbs.
what are the two kinds of fats, and what differentiates them?
- 1. saturated (animal) fats2. unsaturated (fish, plant) fats
- the number of bonds in the fatty acid chain is what makes them different.
what is hydrogenation?
the process of taking plant fat and adding hydrogenated atoms to make it like animal fat
not ALL lipids are fats, such as sterols.
what two important things do sterols contribute?
1. cholesterol (keeps blood fluid, excess cholesterol attaches to and thickens walls)
2. steroids (estrogen and testosterone)
which lipid contributes to a major part of the membrane?
what are the two portions of phospholipids?
- 1. hydrophilic
- 2. hydrophobic (in water, heads and tails interact or don't interact)
cholesterol and phospholipids are which two things:
1. important for the cell membranes
2. not fats
versatile biological macromolecules (building blocks) are also known as:
name five functions of protein
- 1. structural (hair)
- 2. protective (fight microorganisms)
- 3. regulatory (control cell activities)
- 4. contractile (muscle)
- 5. transport
there are 20 different kinds of amino acids. what two groups do most amino acids fit into?
- 1. amino group
- 2. carboxyl group
amino acids are strung together to make:
proteins (each protein has a unique combination of amino acids)
protein is essential for these three things:
- 1. growth
- 2. repair
- 3. replacement
the body can only produce ___ amino acids. the other ___ essential amino acids are needed.
differentiate complete and incomplete proteins
: have all 20 amino acids (like animal fats)
: missing 1 or more of the amino acids that the body needs
- complimentary: two sources of protein that combined provide all amino acids
what structure holds proteins together?
peptide bonds (covalent)
*the shape of a protein is defined by the amino acids.
what are the four structures of proteins?
- 1. primary: amino acid sequence
- 2. secondary: twists/folds (subregions0
- 3. tertiary: 3D shape from multiple twists in polypeptide chains
- 4. quartenary: two or more polypeptide chains
differentiate normal protein structure from denatured protein structure1. fats (long term energy/ insulation)
2. sterols (regulate growth, development)
3. phospholipids (form membrane that inclose cells)
normal protein: twisty and normal
with added HEAT and PH...
denatured protein: all loose and long
** when a protein's shape is changed, it loses its ability to function
define the breaking down of a protein: (enzymes)
- substrate (combined proteins, eg. lactose)
- descend into the
- site (now lactase)
enzymes: proteins that initiate and speed up chemical reactions (each enzyme has a "site"- perfect fit for its substrate)
define misspelled proteins
incorrect amino acid sequence
what are nucleic acids?
macromolecules that store information.
nucleic acids have a sugar-phosphate backbone that connect to 1 of 4 nitrogen bases:
- 1. adenine2. thymine3. guanine
- 4. cytosine
what two types of nucleic acids are there?
- 1. DNA (library)
- 2. RNA (book)
differentiate DNA and RNA
- DNA (in nucleus)
- - long term
- - stable
- - "hard copy"
- - two strands
- - has THYMINE
- RNA (in cytoplasm)
- - short term
- - unstable
- - "photocopy"
- - one strand
- - has URACIL instead of THYMINE