Abnormal Psych

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Abnormal Psych
2013-01-25 14:26:29
Abnormal Psych chapter one

Abnormal psych: overview
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  1. ABAB design
    Experimental design often involving a single subject wherein a baseline period (A) is followed by a treatment (B). To confirm that the treatment resulted in a change in behavior, the treatment is then withdrawn (A) and reinstated (B). 
  2. abnormal psychology
    Field of psychology concerned with the study, assessment, treatment, and prevention of abnormal behavior
  3. acute
    term used to describe a disorder of sudden onset, usually with intense symptoms
  4. analogue studies
    Studies in which a researcher attempts to emulate the conditions hypothesized as leading to abnormality
  5. bias
    observer bias occurs when the researcher has preconceived ideas and expectations that influence the observations he or she makes in the research study
  6. case study method
    an in-depth examination of an individual or family that draws from a number of data sources, including interviews ans psychological testing
  7. chronic
    term used to describe a long-standing or frequently recurring disorder, often with progressing seriousness
  8. comorbility
    occurrence of two or more identified disorders in the same psychologically disordered individual
  9. comparison or control group
    group of subjects who do not exhibit the disorder being studied but who are comparable in all other respects to the criterion group. Also, a comparison group of subjects who do not receive a condition or treatment the effects of which are being studied
  10. correlation
    tendency of two variables to change together. With positive correlation, as one variable goes up, so does the other; with negative correlation, one variable goes up as the other goes down
  11. correlational research/method
    research strategy that examines whether and how variables go together (covary) without manipulating (changing) any variables
  12. correlation coeffiecient
    statistic that ranges from +1.0 to -1.0 and reflects the degree of association between two variables. The magnitude of the correlation indicates the strength of the association, and the sign indicates whether the correlation is positive or negative
  13. criterion group
    group of subjects who exhibit the disorder under study
  14. dependent variable
    in an experiment, the factor that is observed to change with changes in the manipulated (independent) variables
  15. direct observation
    method of collecting research data that involves directly observing behavior in a given situation
  16. direction of effect problem
    refers tot he fact that, in correlation research, it cannot be concluded whether variable A cases variable B or whether B causes A
  17. double-blind study
    often used in studies examining drug treatment effects, a condition where neither the subject nor the experimenter has knowledge about what specific experimental condition (or drug) the subject is receiving
  18. effect size
    a statistical term referring to the strength of the relationship between two variables in a statistical population
  19. epidemiology
    study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health-related behaviors in a given population. Mental health epidemiology is the study of the distribution of mental disorders
  20. etiology
    factors that are related to the development or cause of a particular disorder
  21. experimental research
    research that involves the manipulation of a given factor or variable with everything else held constant
  22. external validity
    the extent to which the findings from a single study are relevant to other populations, contexts, or times
  23. family aggregation
    clustering of certain traits, behaviors, or disorders within a given family. Family aggregation may arise because of genetic or environmental similarities
  24. generalizability
    the extent to which the findings from a single study can be used to draw conclusions about other samples
  25. hypothesis
    statement or proposition, usually based on observation that is tested in an experiment; may be refuted or supported by experimental results but can never be conclusively proved
  26. incidence
    occurrence (onset) rate of a given disorder in a given population
  27. independent variable
    factor whose effects are being examined and which is manipulated in some way while other variables are held constant
  28. internal validity
    the extent to which a study is free of confounds, is methodologically sound, and allows the researcher to have confidence in the findings
  29. labeling
    assigning a person to a particular diagnostic category, such as schizophrenia
  30. lifetime prevalence
    proportion of living persons in a population who have ever had a disorder up to the time of the epidemiological assessment
  31. longitudinal design
    research design in which people are followed over time
  32. meta-analysis
    statistical method used to combine the results of a number of similar research studies. The data from each study are transformed into a common metric call the effect size. This allows the data from the various studies to be combined and then analyzed. Think of a meta-analysis as being like research that you are already familiar with, except that the "participants" are individual research studies, not individual people
  33. negative correlation
    a relationship between two variables such that a high score on one variable is associated with a low score on another
  34. nomenclature
    formalized naming system
  35. 1-year prevalence
    total number of cases of a health-related state or condition in a population for a given year
  36. placebo treatment
    positive effect experienced after an inactive treatment is administered in such a way that a person thinks he or she is receiving an active treatment
  37. point prevalence
    number of cases of a specific condition or disorder that can be found in a population at one given point in time
  38. positive correlation
    a relationship between two variables such that a high score on one variable is associated with a high score on another variable
  39. prevalence
    in a population, the proportion of active cases of a disorder that can be identified at a given point in time or during a given period
  40. prospective research
    method that often focuses on individuals who have a higher-than-average likelihood of becoming psychologically disordered before abnormal behavior is observed
  41. random assignment
    procedure used to created equivalent groups in which every research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in the study
  42. retrospective research
    research approach that attempts to retrace earlier events in the life of a subject
  43. sampling
    process of selecting a representative subgroup from a defined population of interest
  44. self-report data
    data collected directly from participants, typically by means of interviews or questionnaires
  45. single-case research design
    an experimental research design that involves only one subject
  46. statistical significance
    a measure of the probability that a research finding could have occurred by chance alone
  47. stereotyping
    tendency to jump to conclusions about what a person is like based on beliefs about that group that exist in the culture
  48. stigma
    negative labeling
  49. third variable problem
    refers to the problem of making causal inferences in correlational research where the correlation between two variables could be due to their shared correlation with an unmeasured third variable