Chapter 16.2.1

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DesLee26
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195276
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Chapter 16.2.1
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2013-01-25 14:29:27
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HON 122
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Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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  1. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:
    Greatest Achievements 
    • I.                   Greatest achievements occurred in astronomy, mechanics, and medicine (Greek ideas).
    • a.      Cosmological views of the Later middle Ages built on ideas of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Christian theology. 
  2. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Ptolemy
    •                                                               i.      Ptolemaic (geocentric) idea of the earth at the center
    • 1.       Made of earth, air, fire and water
    • 2.       imperfect and constantly changing,
    • 3.      The surrounding spheres were made of crystalline, transparent substances and moved in circular orbits around the earth. 
  3. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Ptolemy= circular movement
    a.      Circular movement= most perfect motion and appropriate for perfect heavenly bodies thought to consist of nonmaterial, incorruptible “quintessence”
  4. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Ptolemy and Heavenly bodies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Heavenly bodies, pure orbs of light, were embedded in the moving, concentric spheres, which in 1500 were believed to number ten
    • 1.      Moon, Mercury, Venus, sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and stars
    • a.      The ninth gave to eighth sphere of fixed stars its motion and the tenth was described as the prime mover that moved itself and gave motion to other spheres
    • 2.      Beyond tenth sphere= Empyrean Heaven with God and saved 
  5. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Ptolemy and Christianizatoin
    • 1.      Christianized Ptolemaic universe was finite with fixed outer boundaries in harmony with Christian thought and expectations
    • a.      God and saved at one end of universe and humans at center, with power over earth, but job to achieve salvation
  6. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Conception 
    • a.      Conception of universe didn’t satisfy professional astronomers, who wanted to ascertain the precise paths of the heavenly bodies across the sky
    •                                                               i.      Their observations didn’t agree with beliefs and they developed devises to save appearances
  7. Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy:Greatest Achievements 
    Professional astronomers proposed
    1.      Proposed that planetary bodies traveled on epicycles, concentric spheres within spheres, that would allow paths of planets to correspond more precisely to observation while adhering to Aristotle’s ideas of circular planetary movement

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