Chapter 16.2.5

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Chapter 16.2.5
2013-01-25 14:48:20
HON 122

Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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  1. I.                   Galileo
    • a.      Taught Math and Pisa and Padua
    • b.      First European to make systematic observations of the heavens using a telescope à new age of astronomy 
  2. I.                   Galileo
    •                                                               i.      Aware of a Flemish lens grinder who created a spyglass that magnified distant objects and made his own
    • 1.      Turned telescope to skins and discovered mountains and craters on the moon, four moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and sunspots
    • a.      Observations demolished idea that universe composed of material substance similar to earth rather than perfect and unchanging substance
  3. I.                   Galileo
    • a.      Revelations published in The Starry Messenger in 1610à contemporaries stunned and Europeans more aware of universe than with Kepler and Copernicus
    • b.      Scholars regarded him as conquering hero
    •                                                               i.      Duke Cosimo II of Florence wanted him as court mathematician= accepted
    • c.       Still suspect by Catholic church 
  4. I.                   Galileo
    The Inquisition
    • a.      The Inquisition
    •                                                               i.      In The Starry Messenger, Galileo supported Copernicus’ heliocentric system
    • 1.      The Roman Inquisition (or Holy Office) of the Catholic Church condemned Copernicanism and wanted Galileo to reject it
    • a.      He still could discuss it as long as he maintained that it was not a fact but a mathematical supposition
  5. I.                   Galileo
    Church attacks
    •                                                               i.      The church attacked the Copernican system because it threatened both Scripture and conception of universe
    • 1.      Heavens no longer spiritual world but world of matter
    • 2.      Humans not at center; God not in specific place
    • New system raised uncertainties= condemned
  6. I.                   Galileo
    No acceptance
    •                                                               i.      Galileo never accepted condemnation
    • 1.      1632: Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican
    • a.      In Italian rather than Latin= more available to public
    • b.      Dialogue among Simplicio, a stupid supporter of Aristotle, Sagredo (layman), and Salviati (proponent of Copernicus)
    • No winner, but viewed as defense of Copernicus
  7. I.                   Galileo
    Dragged into inquisition
    1.      Dragged into Inquisition, found guilty of teaching it, and forced to recant his errorsà house arrestà 8 years studying mechanics
  8. I.                   Galileo
    Problem of Motion
    • a.      Problem of Motion
    •                                                               i.      Mechanicsà principle of motion
    • 1.      Aristotle: object at rest unless a force applied against it
    • a.      If force constantly exerted, object moved at constant rate, but, if removed, object stops
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Conception= difficulties with projectile thrown out of cannon
    • 1.      Late medieval theorists solved problem by arguing that rush of air behind projectile kept it in motion
  9. I.                   Galileo
    Problem of Motion--> Mechanics--> Another Problem
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Also raised problem in new Copernican system
    • 1.      Ptolemaic system said concentric spheres surrounding earth were weightless
    • 2.      Copernicus said if a constant force had to be applied to objects to cause movement, then what power or force kept the heavy earth and other planets in motion
    • a.      Galileo solved problem
  10. I.                   Galileo
    His Contributions
    • 1.      Galileo’s contributions
    • a.      Demonstrated by experiments that if a uniform force was applied to an object, it would move at an accelerated speed rather than a constant speed
    • b.      Principle of inertia discovered when he argued that  a body in motion continues in motion forever unless deflected by an external force
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      State of uniform motion is just as natural as a state of rest
    • c.       Before him, natural philosophers tried to explain motion, but needed to explain changes in motion
  11. I.                   Galileo
    a.      Condemnation of Galileo by Inquisition, during economic decline, undermined further scientific work in Italy, which had been the forefront of scientific innovation
  12. I.                   Galileo
    •                                                               i.      Leadership in scienceà England, France, and Dutch Netherlands
    • 1.      1630s-1640s: no reasonable astronomer could overlook Galileo’s discoveries, as well as Kepler’s mathematical laws
  13. I.                   Galileo
    Made nonsense
    • a.      Made nonsense of Ptolemaic-Aristotelian world system and established the reasonableness of the Copernican model
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Problem of explaining motion in the universe and tying together the ideas of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler weren’t solved, but would be with Newton