Chapter 16.5.1

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DesLee26
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195292
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Chapter 16.5.1
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2013-01-25 15:12:14
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HON 122
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Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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  1. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    Intro
    • a.      View of cosmological revolution changed Western view of humankind
    •                                                               i.      Rene Descartes
    • 1.      Reflected doubt and uncertainty that seemed pervasive in confusion of seventeenth century and ended with philosophy that dominated Western thought until 20th century
  2. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    Descartes
    •                                                               i.      From French lower nobility with Jesuit education and studied law at Poitiers but traveled to Paris for private study
    • 1.      1618 (start of Thirty Years War) he volunteered for service in the army of Maurice of Nassau but motives not for military, but for travel and leisure time to think 
  3. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    One night
    a.      One night, he perceived the outlines of a new rational-mathematical system, with a sense of divine approval he made a new commitment to mind, math, and a mechanical universe
  4. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    Starting Point
    •                                                               i.      Starting point for new system=doubt as he explained in the Discourse on Method
    • 1.      Decided to set aside all he learned and begin again, except for his own existence
    •                                                             ii.      With emphasis on mind, he asserted that he’d accept only those things that reason said were true
  5. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    First Postulate
    • 1.      First postulate: deduced additional principle the separation of mind and matter
    • a.      Mind can’t be doubted but the body and material world canà two are different
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Led to absolute duality between mind and body called Cartesian dualism
  6. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    using mind or human reason
    1.      Using mind or human reason, the path to certain knowledge and its best instrument, mathematics, humans can understand material world because it’s pure mechanism , a machine that is governed by own physical laws because created by God, the great geometrician
  7. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    His conclusions
    •                                                               i.      His conclusions about the nature of the universe and human beings had important implications
    • 1.      Separation of mind and matter allowed scientists to view matter as dead or inert, something totally separate from selves and could be investigated independently by reason
    • a.      Split between mind and bodyà Westerners equate their identity with mind and reason rather than whole organism 
  8. Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
    Father of modern rationalism
    •                                                               i.      Father of modern rationalism
    • 1.      Books placed on papal Index of Forbidden Books and condemned by many Protestant theologians
    • a.      Radical Cartesian split between mind and matter, and between mind and body, devastating implications for both traditional religious views of universe and for how Westerners viewed selves

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