Chapter 16.6.1

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Chapter 16.6.1
2013-01-25 15:19:12
HON 122

Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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  1. The Scientific Method and the Spread of Scientific Knowledge: __ and __ increased. New chairs of science, especially in __, established. Royal and princely __of individual __became an international phenomenon. The __ constructed an astronomical observatory for __; __ hired him and __as imperial __, and the grand duke of __appointed __to a similar post
    • Scientific learning and investigation
    • medicine
    • patronage
    • scientists
    • king of Denmark
    • Tycho Brahe
    • Emperor Rudolf II
    • Kepler
    • mathematicians
    • Tuscany
    • Galileo
  2. I.                   The Scientific Method
    Francis Bacon
    • a.      Proper means to examine and understand the physical realm; method crucial
    • b.      Francis Bacon
    •                                                               i.      Englishman who attempted to put forth new method of acquiring knowledge that impacted Royal Society in England in 17th century and other Europeans in 18th
    •                                                             ii.      Lawyer and lord chancellor who rejected Copernicus and Kepler and misunderstood Galileo
  3. I.                   The Scientific Method
    The Great Instauration
    •                                                               i.      The Great Instauration= called for contemporaries to reconstruct sciences, arts, etc.
    • 1.      Didn’t doubt human’s ability to know the natural world, but believed they were proceeding incorrectly 
  4. I.                   The Scientific Method
    New Foundation
    •                                                               i.      New foundation= scientific method built on inductive principles
    • 1.      Rather than beginning with assumed first principles from which logical conclusions could be deduced, he urged scientists to proceed from particular to general
    • a.      Careful experimentsà thorough observations and correct generalizations
  5. I.                   The Scientific Method
    •                                                               i.      Concern more for practical than pure science
    • 1.      Wanted science to contribute to the mechanical arts by creating devices that would benefit industry, agriculture, and trade
    •                                                             ii.      The control and domination of nature became a central proposition of modern science and technology that accomplished it 
  6. I.                   The Scientific Method
    • a.      Descartes
    •                                                               i.      Different approach to scientific methodology by emphasizing deduction and mathematical logic
    •                                                             ii.      Discourse on Method
    • 1.      Each step in an argument should be as sharp and well founded as a mathematical proof 
  7. I.                   The Scientific Method
    •                                                               i.      Believed that one could start with self-evident truths, comparable to geometric axioms, and deduce more complex conclusions
    • Emphasis on deduction and mathematical order complemented Bacon’s stress on experiment and induction 
  8. I.                   The Scientific Method
    Sir Isaac Newton
    • a.      Sir Isaac Newton synthesized them into single scientific methodology by uniting Bacon’s empiricism with Descartes’ rationalism
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This scientific method began with systematic observations and experiments, which were used to arrive at general concepts
    • 1.      New deductions arrived from these general concepts could then be tested and verified by precise experiments
  9. I.                   The Scientific Method
    Scientific Method
    • a.      Scientific method was valuable in answering how something works and its success in doing this gave others much confidence in method
    •                                                               i.      Did not deal with why something happens or the purpose and meaning behind the world of nature, which allowed religion to retain central importance