Chapter 16.6.2

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Chapter 16.6.2
2013-01-25 15:25:44
HON 122

Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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  1. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Emergence and Scientific Societies
    • a.      Emergence of new learned societies and journals that enabled new communication of ideas
    • b.      Scientific Societies
    •                                                               i.      First in Italy, but England and France= more significant 
  2. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    English Royal Society
    • 1.      English Royal Society evolved out of informal gatherings of scientists at London and Oxford
    • a.      Chartered in 1662 by King Charles II
    • b.      Received little government encouragement and fellows simply co-opted new members
    • c.       Created committee to investigate technological improvements for industry
  3. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    French Royal Society
    • 1.      French Royal Academy of Sciences from informal scientific meetings in Paris in 1650s and formally recognized by Louis XIV in 1666
    • a.      Received lots of state support and remained under government control
    • b.      Members appointed and paid salaries by the state
    • c.       Collected tools and machines
  4. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge

    French and English Society interests
    •                                                               i.      in mechanics and astronomy
    • 1.      Construction of observatories at Paris in 1667 and England in 1675 greatly facilitated research in astronomy by both groups
    • a.      French Academy, however, since controlled by state, was forced by war minister of France, the marquis de Louvois, to continue practical work to benefit both the king and the state
  5. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    French Example
    •      i.      French example especially important as a model for the scientific societies established in neighboring Germany
    • 1.      German princes and city governments encouraged foundation of small-scale scientific societies of their own
    • a.      Most sponsored by governments and were mainly devoted to betterment of the state
  6. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    True Significance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      Although both English and French societies made useful contributions to scientific knowledge in second half of 17th century, their true significance was that they demonstrated the benefits of science proceeding as a cooperative venture
  7. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Scientific Journals
    • a.      Scientific Journals furthered concept of cooperation
    •                                                               i.      French Journal des Savants, published weekly in 1665, printed results of experiments as well as general scientific knowledge
    • 1.      Format appealed to both scientists and the educated public interested in the new science
  8. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Philosophical Transactions
    •                                                               i.      Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society published papers of its own members and learned correspondence and was aimed at practicing scientists
    • 1.      Prototype for scholarly journals of later learned and academic societies and a crucial instrument for circulating news of scientific and academic activities
  9. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Science and Society
    • a.      Science and Society
    •                                                               i.      Importance of science effective in Industrial Revolution
    •                                                             ii.      Factors for rapid acceptance of science
    • 1.      Literate mercantile and propertied elites of Europe attracted to new science because it offered new ways to exploit resources for profit
  10. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Scientists made it easier...
    • a.      Scientists made it easier for these groups to accept the new ideas by applying them to specific industrial and technological needs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Galileo sought alliance between science and material interests of educated elite when he said mechanics was useful for building bridges
    • 1.      Also stressed science was fit for wise, not shallow minds of commoners
  11. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Science became what?
    a.      Science became high culture of Europe’s wealthy elites at a time when culture was being separated from the popular culture of the lower classes
  12. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Political Interests
    • 1.      Political interests for social stability
    • a.      Fed by millenarian expectations that end of world would come and usher in a 1000 year reign of saints, Puritans wanted to reform and renew society
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Seized on new science as socially useful instrument for this
    • 1.      Puritan Revolution’s role in acceptance of science stemmed from reaction to radicalism spawned by revolutionary ferment
  13. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    a.      Upheavals of Puritan Revolution gave rise to groups (Levellers, Diggers, Ranters) who advocated both radical political and new radical science ideas based on Paracelsus and natural magic associated with Hermeticism. 
  14. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Elite response
    • a.      The propertied and educated elites responded vigorously to the challenges to the established order by supporting the new mechanistic science and appealing to the material benefits of science
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Hence, the founders of the Royal Society were men who wanted to pursue an experimental science that would remain detached from radical reforms of church and state
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Although willing to make changes, they viewed those changes in terms of an increase in food production and commerce
  15. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    By 18th century
    • a.      By 18th century, the Newtonian world-machine was accepted
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Newtonian science soon to be applied to trade and industry by a mercantile and landed elite that believed they could retain social order and enrich themselves while improving human condition
  16. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    Princes and kings
    • a.      Princes and kings who were providing patronage for scientists were doing so for prestige and practical reasons, especially military applications of mathematical sciences
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gunpowderà ballistics and metallurgy
  17. I.                   The Spread of Scientific Knowledge
    • a.      Rulers concerned about matters of belief in their realms and recognized need to control and manage scientific body of knowledge
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In appointing members and paying salaries, Louis XIV made sure members and work were under his control