Chapter 16.6.3

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  1. I.                   Science and Religion
    • a.      In Galileo’s struggle with the inquisitorial Holy Office of the Catholic Church= struggle between science and religion
    •                                                               i.      Theology was queen of the sciences
    • 1.      Natural that churches continued belief that religion was final measure of all
    • a.      Emerging scientists disagreed and tried to draw lines between knowledge of religion and knowledge of natural philosophy (nature)
  2. I.                   Science and Religion
    Galileo thought what was necessary...
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Galileo thought it was unnecessary to pit science against religion
    • 1.      To him, it made little sense for church to determine the nature of physical reality on basis of biblical texts that were subject to radically divergent interpretations
    • 2.      The church decided otherwise and lent its great authority to one scientific theory, the Ptolemaic-Aristotelian cosmology, because it fit with their own philosophical views of realityà consequences
  3. I.                   Science and Religion
    • a.      for educated individuals, it established a dichotomy between scientific investigations and religious beliefs
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      as scientific beliefs triumphed, it became inevitable that religious beliefs would suffer, leading to growing secularization in European intellectual life, which the church tried to prevent 
  4. I.                   Science and Religion
    17th Century intellectuals
    • a.      many 17th century intellectuals were both religious and scientific and believed that he implications of the split would be tragic
    • b.      Some believed split unnecessary, while others felt need to combine God, humans, and a mechanistic universe into a new philosophical synthesis
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Spinoza and Pascal illustrate the diversity in the response of European intellectuals to the implications of the cosmological revolution 
  5. I.                   Science and Religion
    •                                                               i.      Philosopher who grew up in Amsterdam
    •                                                             ii.      Excommunicated from Amsterdam synagogue at 24 for rejecting Judaism and later Christian churchesà quite life, earning a living grinding lenses and refusing to accept an academic position in philosophy at the University of Heidelberg for fear of compromising his freedom of thought
  6. I.                   Science and Religion
    Spinoza and new Scientific Lit
    •                                                               i.      Read new scientific literature and was influenced by Descartes
    • 1.      Unwilling to accept implications of Descartes’ ideas, especially separation of mind and matter and separation of infinite God from finite world of matter
    • a.      God not creator; he was the universe
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      All is in God and nothing apart= pantheism (monism) in Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner
  7. I.                   Science and Religion
    Spinoza and beliefs
    •                                                               i.      Believed humans not situated in nature but are as much a part of God or nature or universal order as other natural objects
    • 1.      Failure to understand God led to many misconceptions, for one that natures exists only for one’s uses
    • a.      Unable to find any other cause for existence, they attributed them to creator-God who must be worshipped to gain their ends
  8. I.                   Science and Religion
    Spinoza Beliefs of nature and humans
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When nature unfriendly (storms, etc), they though gods were angry at some wrong men did  rather than realize that good and evil fall on both good and bad
    • 1.      Likewise, humans made moral condemnations of others because they failed to understand that human emotions follow the same necessity of nature and nothing comes to pass in nature
  9. I.                   Science and Religion
    Spinoza and emotion
    • a.      To explain human emotion, we need to analyze them
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Everything has a rational explanation and humans are capable of finding it
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Reason can help people understand the order and necessity of nature and achieve detachment from passing interests
  10. I.                   Science and Religion
    •                                                               i.      French scientists who tried to keep science and religion united
    •                                                             ii.      Accomplished scientist and brilliant mathematician who excelled at practical, by inventing calculating machine, and abstract, by devising theory of chance or probability and doing work on conic sections
  11. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal visions
    •                                                               i.      After a vision, which assured him that God cared for the human soul, he devoted life to religion
    • 1.      Planned to write apology for the Christian religion, but died before done
    • 2.      Left a set of notes for larger work= Pensees (Thoughts)
  12. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal's Pensees
    •                                                               i.      Pensees
    • 1.      Tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to both their reason and their emotions
    • a.      Humans were frail creatures deceived by senses, misled by reason, and battered by emotions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      But nature required their thinking
  13. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal was determined to do what?
    •                                                               i.      Determined to show Christian religion was not contrary to reason
    • 1.      It was the only religion that recognized people’s true state of being as both vulnerable and great
    • a.      To a Christian, a human being was both fallen and at same time God’s special creation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      But it was not necessary to emphasize one at the expense of the other—to view humans as only rational or only hopeless
  14. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal's answer 
    •                                                               i.      Even had an answer for skeptics in his famous wager
    • 1.      God is a reasonable bet; it is worthwhile to assume that God exists
    • a.      If he does= we win; if he doesn’t= we lose
  15. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal Refusal
    •                                                               i.      Despite scientific and mathematical background, he refused to rely on scientists’ world of order and rationality to attract people to God
    • 1.      In the new cosmology of the 17th century, “finite man” was lost in new infinite world
    • 2.      Nature could never reveal God
    • 3.      A Christian could only rely on a God who through Jesus cared for human beings
    • 4.      In the final analysis, after providing reasonable arguments for Christianity, he rested on faith
    • a.      Reason could only take you so far
    • b.      Faith was the final step 
  16. I.                   Science and Religion
    Pascal Failure
    •                                                               i.      Failed to achieve goal of uniting Christianity and science
    • 1.      The gap between them grew wider as Europe continued along path of secularization
    • a.      Traditional religions not eliminated; churches did not yet lose followers (that comes later)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Nevertheless, more and more of the intellectual, social, and political elites acted on basis of secular rather than religious assumptions 
Card Set:
Chapter 16.6.3
2013-01-25 20:32:42
HON 122

Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern Science
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