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What depends on both endocrine and exocrine secretions and the controlled movement of injested food materials through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?
The GI tract extends through the abdominopelvic cavity to? Which makes it?
outside the internal enviornment of the body which makes it not sterile
What are the segments of the Gastrointestinal Tract?
- Small intestine*
- Large intestine*
- Anal canal
What are the GI's accessory organs?
- Salivary glands*
- Vermiform appendix
What are the 4 layers of the GI tract wall?
mucosa, submucosa, musclaris, serosa
The majority of the GI tract is controlled by what type of muscles?
inner & outer layer of smooth muscle moves food rythmically
connective tissue layer
The buccal cavity consists of:
lips, cheeks, hard & soft palates, tongue
What is in the buccal cavity? What can happen?
lots of blood vessels, veins, arteries; from the mouth things taken in can bypass the liver and work immediatly
Where is the lingual frenulum?
the little skin underneath your tongue
What do the 3 pairs of compound tubuloalveolar (salivary) glands secrete?
- Parotid- secrete enzymes
- Submandibular- secrete enzymes & mucus
- Sublingual- secrete muscus only
Mastication of food happens with the teeth, what is the tooths anatomy?
_____ makes up the greatest portion of the tooth shell; at crown, covered by enamel, and at the neck and root, covered by cementum.
______ located in dentin, contains connective tissue, blood, and lyphatic vessels and secretory nerves.
First segemnt of digestive tube, extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
The ______ _______ ______ (UES) in the cervical part of the esophagus helps prevent air from entering the esophagus during respiration.
upper esophageal sphincter
The (LES) is also called the _____ ______; it contains stomach contents while the stomach is full and churning.
Where is the stomach located?
upper part of abdominal cavity under the liver and diaphragm
What are the divisions of the stomach?
What is the Fundus?
enlarged portion to the left and above opening of esophagus into stomach; TOP of stomach
What is the Body of the stomach?
central portion of the stomach
What is the Pylorus of the stomach?
lower part of stomach; curved
What is the capacity ranges for the stomach of an adult?
1.0 to 1.5 liters
upper right curve of the stomach
lower left curve of the stomach
______ - circular fibers arranged so that there is an opening in the center when relaxed and no opening when contracted
What controls opening of esophagus into the stomach?
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) or cardiac sphincter
What controls the outlet of pyloric portion of stomach into duodenum?
The stomach wall contains all of the following:
gastric mucosa- epithelial lining has rugae marked by gastic pits.
- Gastric glands
- Cheif cells
- Parietal cells
- Endocrine cells
_____- found below level of the pits; secrete most of gastric juice
________- secretory cells found in gastric glands; secrete the enzymes of gastric juice
________- secretory cells found in gastric glands; secrete hydrochloric acid; thought to produce intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B12 absoption.
_______- secrete gastrin and ghrelin
What is the feedback mechanism to tell the brain when it is hungry or not?
Thick layer of muscle with 3 distinct sublayers of smooth muscle tissue arranged pattern; this pattern allows stomach to contract strongly at many angles.
Functions of the stomach
- Functions of the stomach
- Resivour for food
- Secretes gastric juice to aid in digestion of food
- Breaks food into small particles and mixes them with gastric juice
- Secretes intrinsic factorLimited absorptionProduces gastrin and ghrelin
- Helps protect body from pathogenic bacteria swallowed with food
What is the stomachs pH?
The majority of foods nutrients is absorbed in the:
What are the divisions of the small intestine?
What do villi do for the wall of the small intestine?
finger like projections they increase surface area hundereds of times and absorbe nutrients
The appendix harvards:
The secum to appenix is a:
What are the divisions of the large intestine?
The colon is divided into the following portions:
Vertical position on the rifht side of abdomen; ileocecal valve prevents material passing from large intestine into ileum.
Passes horizontally across abdomen, above small intestine; extends from hepatic flexure to splenic flexure.
Vertical position on left side of abdomen.
Joins descending colon to rectum.
Last 7 or 8 inches of intestinal tube; terminal inch is anal canal with opening called the anus.
Wall of the large instestine:
______ _____ ______ produce lubricating mucus that coats feces as they are formed; (moving along preparing for waste).
Intestinal mucous glands
Wormlike tubular organ; the appendix most prominant functioning in the first 10 years of life. What does it do?
the appendix has abundant infection-fighting lymohoid cells; it produces & protects good germs for the gut; it communicates with the cecum
Large, continuous sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity & is made up of parietal and visceral layers.
Filtering towers; receives absorbed stuff from small intestine, stores lipids, breaks down, has lobes.
Largest gland in the body; lies underneath the diaphragm.
Liver lobes & lobules:
- left lobe- small
- right lobe- large
- hapatic lobules- branch of hepatic vein extends through the center of be lobule
Production site for bile needed to breakdown lipids:
Bile ducts in the liver
The common bile ducts in the gallbladder from the liver and pancreatic ducts open into the duodenum. Where is the duodenum?
It lies below the liver & the gallbladder and parallel to the pancreas and inbetween the transverse, ascending colon and pancreas.
What are the functions of the liver?
- Bile secretion
- Liver metabolism
- Storage of substances
- Production of important plasma proteins
Bile secretion- bile salts are formed in liver from:
Liver cells secrete _ ____ of bile per day to be stored in the ______.
1 pint; gallbladder
Liver metabolism =
One function of the liver is to store substances such as:
iron and some vitamins
Pear-shaped sac that holds bile and lies on undersurface of the liver:
______- serous, muscular, and mucous layers compose the _____ wall; mucosal lining has rugae.
Structure of the gallbladder; gallbladder
Functions of the gallbladder:
- Storage of bile
- Concentration of bile fivefold to tenfold
- Ejection of the concentrated bile into duodenum
What route does bile take to end up in the duodenum?
- Bile duct
Grayish pink-colored gland; runs from duodenum and behind stomach to spleen; looks like a leaf:
Has endocrine & exocrine cells; only things that makes 2 substances that oppose eachother:
What are the 2 substances the pancreas produces that oppose eachother?
What do Insulin and Glucagon do?
- Insulin- lowers blood sugar
- Glucagon- raises blood sugar
Beta cells secrete:
Alpha cells secrete:
Acinar units secrete:
_______ portion makes up majority of pancreas; has a compound acinar arrangement; tiny ducts unite to form main pancreatic duct, empties into duodenum.
______ portion embedded between exocrine units; called pancreatic islets; constitutes only 2% of total of pancreas; made up of alpha cells & beta cells; pass secretions into capillaries.
Mumps effect parotid glands, in a make child they can cause permanent ______.
What are mesentaries and what do they do?
A double layer or fold of the peritoneum that connects the intestines tot he dorsal abdominal wall, especially such a fold that envelops the jujenum & ileum.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is also known as:
Diseases of the GI tract:
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Tooth decay
- Cleft palate