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  1. What depends on both endocrine and exocrine secretions and the controlled movement of injested food materials through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?
  2. The GI tract extends through the abdominopelvic cavity to? Which makes it?
    outside the internal enviornment of the body which makes it not sterile
  3. What are the segments of the Gastrointestinal Tract?
    • Mouth
    • Oropharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine*
    • Large intestine*
    • Anal canal
  4. What are the GI's accessory organs?
    • Salivary glands*
    • Tongue
    • Teeth
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Vermiform appendix
  5. What are the 4 layers of the GI tract wall?
    mucosa, submucosa, musclaris, serosa
  6. The majority of the GI tract is controlled by what type of muscles?
  7. Mucosa is:
    epithelium cells
  8. Submucosa is:
    connective tissue
  9. Muscularis is:
    inner & outer layer of smooth muscle moves food rythmically
  10. Serosa is:
    connective tissue layer
  11. The buccal cavity consists of:
    lips, cheeks, hard & soft palates, tongue
  12. What is in the buccal cavity? What can happen?
    lots of blood vessels, veins, arteries; from the mouth things taken in can bypass the liver and work immediatly
  13. Where is the lingual frenulum?
    the little skin underneath your tongue
  14. What do the 3 pairs of compound tubuloalveolar (salivary) glands secrete?
    • Parotid- secrete enzymes
    • Submandibular- secrete enzymes & mucus
    • Sublingual- secrete muscus only
  15. Mastication of food happens with the teeth, what is the tooths anatomy?
    • Crown
    • Neck
    • Root
  16. _____ makes up the greatest portion of the tooth shell; at crown, covered by enamel, and at the neck and root, covered by cementum.
  17. ______ located in dentin, contains connective tissue, blood, and lyphatic vessels and secretory nerves.
    Pulp cavity
  18. First segemnt of digestive tube, extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
  19. The ______ _______ ______ (UES) in the cervical part of the esophagus helps prevent air from entering the esophagus during respiration.
    upper esophageal sphincter
  20. The (LES) is also called the _____ ______; it contains stomach contents while the stomach is full and churning.
    cardiac sphincter
  21. Where is the stomach located?
    upper part of abdominal cavity under the liver and diaphragm
  22. What are the divisions of the stomach?
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pylorus
  23. What is the Fundus?
    enlarged portion to the left and above opening of esophagus into stomach; TOP of stomach
  24. What is the Body of the stomach?
    central portion of the stomach
  25. What is the Pylorus of the stomach?
    lower part of stomach; curved
  26. What is the capacity ranges for the stomach of an adult?
    1.0 to 1.5 liters
  27. upper right curve of the stomach
    Lesser curvature
  28. lower left curve of the stomach
    Greater curvature
  29. ______ - circular fibers arranged so that there is an opening in the center when relaxed and no opening when contracted
    Sphincter muscles
  30. What controls opening of esophagus into the stomach?
    the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) or cardiac sphincter
  31. What controls the outlet of pyloric portion of stomach into duodenum?
    Pyloric sphincter
  32. The stomach wall contains all of the following:
    gastric mucosa- epithelial lining has rugae marked by gastic pits.
    • Gastric glands
    • Cheif cells
    • Parietal cells
    • Endocrine cells
  33. _____- found below level of the pits; secrete most of gastric juice
    Gastric glands
  34. ________- secretory cells found in gastric glands; secrete the enzymes of gastric juice
    Cheif cells
  35. ________- secretory cells found in gastric glands; secrete hydrochloric acid; thought to produce intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B12 absoption.
    Parietal cells
  36. _______- secrete gastrin and ghrelin
    Endocrine cells
  37. What is the feedback mechanism to tell the brain when it is hungry or not?
  38. Thick layer of muscle with 3 distinct sublayers of smooth muscle tissue arranged pattern; this pattern allows stomach to contract strongly at many angles.
    Gastric muscularis
  39. Functions of the stomach
    • Functions of the stomach
    • Resivour for food
    • Secretes gastric juice to aid in digestion of food
    • Breaks food into small particles and mixes them with gastric juice
    • Secretes intrinsic factorLimited absorptionProduces gastrin and ghrelin
    • Helps protect body from pathogenic bacteria swallowed with food
  40. What is the stomachs pH?
  41. The majority of foods nutrients is absorbed in the:
  42. What are the divisions of the small intestine?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  43. What do villi do for the wall of the small intestine?
    finger like projections they increase surface area hundereds of times and absorbe nutrients
  44. The appendix harvards:
    good bacteria
  45. The secum to appenix is a:
    tiny hole
  46. What are the divisions of the large intestine?
    • cecum
    • colon
    • rectum
  47. The colon is divided into the following portions:
    • ascending
    • transverse
    • descending
    • sigmoid
  48. Vertical position on the rifht side of abdomen; ileocecal valve prevents material passing from large intestine into ileum.
    Ascending colon
  49. Passes horizontally across abdomen, above small intestine; extends from hepatic flexure to splenic flexure.
    Transverse colon
  50. Vertical position on left side of abdomen.
    Descending colon
  51. Joins descending colon to rectum.
    Sigmoid colon
  52. Last 7 or 8 inches of intestinal tube; terminal inch is anal canal with opening called the anus.
  53. Wall of the large instestine:
    ______ _____ ______ produce lubricating mucus that coats feces as they are formed; (moving along preparing for waste).
    Intestinal mucous glands
  54. Wormlike tubular organ; the appendix most prominant functioning in the first 10 years of life. What does it do?
    the appendix has abundant infection-fighting lymohoid cells; it produces & protects good germs for the gut; it communicates with the cecum
  55. Large, continuous sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity & is made up of parietal and visceral layers.
  56. Filtering towers; receives absorbed stuff from small intestine, stores lipids, breaks down, has lobes.
  57. Largest gland in the body; lies underneath the diaphragm.
  58. Liver lobes & lobules:
    • left lobe- small
    • right lobe- large
    • hapatic lobules- branch of hepatic vein extends through the center of be lobule
  59. Production site for bile needed to breakdown lipids:
    Bile ducts in the liver
  60. The common bile ducts in the gallbladder from the liver and pancreatic ducts open into the duodenum. Where is the duodenum?
    It lies below the liver & the gallbladder and parallel to the pancreas and inbetween the transverse, ascending colon and pancreas.
  61. What are the functions of the liver?
    • Detoxification
    • Bile secretion
    • Liver metabolism
    • Storage of substances
    • Production of important plasma proteins
  62. Bile secretion- bile salts are formed in liver from:
  63. Liver cells secrete _ ____ of bile per day to be stored in the ______.
    1 pint; gallbladder
  64. Liver metabolism =
    • proteins
    • fats
    • carbohydrates
  65. One function of the liver is to store substances such as:
    iron and some vitamins
  66. Pear-shaped sac that holds bile and lies on undersurface of the liver:
    The Gallbladder
  67. ______- serous, muscular, and mucous layers compose the _____ wall; mucosal lining has rugae.
    Structure of the gallbladder; gallbladder
  68. Functions of the gallbladder:
    • Storage of bile
    • Concentration of bile fivefold to tenfold
    • Ejection of the concentrated bile into duodenum
  69. What route does bile take to end up in the duodenum?
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Bile duct
    • Pancreas
    • Duodenum
  70. Grayish pink-colored gland; runs from duodenum and behind stomach to spleen; looks like a leaf:
    The Pancreas
  71. Has endocrine & exocrine cells; only things that makes 2 substances that oppose eachother:
    The Pancreas
  72. What are the 2 substances the pancreas produces that oppose eachother?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  73. What do Insulin and Glucagon do?
    • Insulin- lowers blood sugar
    • Glucagon- raises blood sugar
  74. Beta cells secrete:
  75. Alpha cells secrete:
  76. Acinar units secrete:
    digestive enzymes
  77. _______ portion makes up majority of pancreas; has a compound acinar arrangement; tiny ducts unite to form main pancreatic duct, empties into duodenum.
  78. ______ portion embedded between exocrine units; called pancreatic islets; constitutes only 2% of total of pancreas; made up of alpha cells & beta cells; pass secretions into capillaries.
  79. Mumps effect parotid glands, in a make child they can cause permanent ______.
  80. What are mesentaries and what do they do?
    A double layer or fold of the peritoneum that connects the intestines tot he dorsal abdominal wall, especially such a fold that envelops the jujenum & ileum.
  81. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is also known as:
  82. Diseases of the GI tract:
    • Sjogren's syndrome
    • Mumps
    • Gingivitis
    • Tooth decay
    • Cleft palate
    • GERD
    • Ulcers
Card Set:
2013-01-25 21:58:02
Anatomy Digestive System

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