Paramedic Test #8 - Chapter 26 - Infectious Diseases
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What is another word for communicable disease?
What is an endemic?
Incidence of cases of a specific disease in a particular geographic area over time.
What is a pandemic?
When a disease infects large numbers of people and spreads all over the world.
Infectious disease causes?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
What are ways to spread infectious disease from person to person?
Contact transmission - Direct contact with an infected person, such as touching. Needle stick, STDs, contaminated blood transfusion. Indirect contact as well - touching a bloody stretcher railing, shaking hands with a father who has just wiped infected child's nose. Those object that harbor infection are fomites.
Droplet transmission - Inhalation of infected droplets. TB. 3-6ft rule.
Airborne transmission - pathogens transmitted by airborne particles. Can become aerosoloized when a person coughs.
Vector - organism that harbors pathogens that are harmless to the organism. Mosquito with west nile.
Needle safety act?
2000 Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. All sharps be needle safe or needleless systems.
What is DICO?
Designated Infectious Control Officer. Contact them if exposure occurs.
What is the Ryan White law?
Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act. Medical facility must release the source patient's test results if contaminated.
What are vaccines?
Suspensions of whole (live or inactivated) fractionated bacteria or viruses that have been rendered non-pathogenic and the immune system produces antibodies against them.
What is contaminated?
Object that has microorganisms on or in it. Food, water, dressings, materials.
Infection - Someone might be contaminated, but are not infected until that organism produces an illness.
What is a carrier?
Someone who is contaminated with no signs or symptoms, but can pass it on.
What is virulence?
Ability of an organism to invade and create disease in a host. HIV has no risk outside the human body because it dies in light and air.
Ability to fight off infection with your immune system.
What is the incubation period?
Period between exposure to the organism and the first symptoms of the illness.
The portion of the total time someone is sick that they are cable of transmitting the disease.
What are different pathogenic organisms?
Bacteria - grow outside the human cell
Virus - smaller than bacteria and can multiply only inside a host - die when exposed to the environment
Fungi - similar to bacteria in that they can grow rapidly in the presence of nutrients and organic material.
Parasites - Live in or on another living creature
What is a reservoir?
Place where organisms may live and multiply.
Primary protective barrier from infection?
Secondary - mucous membranes - tears, GI membranes
What is meningitis?
Inflamation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges.
What is RSV?
Respiratory syncytial virus, leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, older people, and immunocompromised.
What is mono?
Mononucleosis, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a herpes virus. Grows in the epithelium of the oropharnyx and sheds into the saliva.
What is gonorrhea?
STD caused the the gonococcal bacteria. Spread by pus containing fluid from mucous membranes. 2-7 day incubation period. Communicable for months if not treated, if treated, non-communicable within hours.
What is syphilis?
STD cause by spiral shaped bacterium. Acute and chronic disease. Caused by direct contact with infectious fluids, can be from placenta to fetus, sexual contact or blood transfusion.
What is genital herpes?
Chronic, recurrent disease produced by infection with herpes simplex virus. Type 1 spread though oral contact, type 2 through sexual contact. Vesicular lesions.
What is chlamydia?
Highest incidence rate of STDs. Pelvic inflammatory disease develops. Inflammation of the urethra, epididymis, cervix, and fallopian tubes when the infection is acquired through sexual contact.
What is scabies?
Caused by a parasite, rash, small raised red bumps, sores.
What are lice?
Small insects that crawl through the hair and feed on blood through the skin. Cannot hop or fly.
What is viral hepatitis?
- Inflamation of the liver produced by the liver.
- A B C D E.
Hepatitus B aka serum hepatitus transmitted through sexual contact, blood transfusion or puncture of the skin with contaminated needles. May live in dried blood for 7 days. Patient may appear jaundice or have scleral icterus.
What is Hepatitus C?
Most common bloodborne infection and leading cause of living transplant in US. Needlestick main cause, but low chance of 1.5%.
Delta hepatitus, host needs to be infected with Hep B for Hep D infection to occur. Highest incidence in IV drug users.
Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1. Infection by contact with blood and bodily fluids, sex transmission, and blood transfusion. If infection not treated, Helper-T cells declines. Seroconversion - antibodies can be detected in the blood. Seropositive - prescribed antiviral treatment.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the end stage disease process caused by HIV. Vulnerable to opportunistic infections.
What is gastroenteritis?
Norovirus infection causes 90% of epidemic nonbacterial outbreaks. 50% of all foodborne outbreaks in the US.
Infectious hepatitis, most common. Fecal-oral route. Contaminated drinking water, milk, sliced meats. Usually resolves after several weeks.
Hepatitus E - enteric ally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (ET-NANB). 50% of all hepatitis in developing countries with floods and poor sanitation.
What is a zoonotic disease?
Diseases tranmitted through a vector like a tick or mosquito.
West nile and lyme?
Zoonotic diseases, transmitted through a vector.
What is hantavirus?
AKA hemorrhagic fever with pulmonary syndrome, associated with the deer mouse and rat. Flu-like symptoms that can progress rapidly to life threatening breathing problems.
What is rabies?
Hydrophobia, from a direct bite of an infected animal. Non-specific symptoms at first, then neurological, then coma. Fewer than 5 cases per year.
What is tetanus?
Lockjaw, 26 cases in 2010. From puncture wounds with soil, feces, or dust, or IV.
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus?
Staph infection, MRSA. 90% are community acquired, mostly heath care related. Showing resistance to antibiotics. Transmitted by unwashed hands of health care providers. May have localized skin abscesses and cellulites, emphemas and endocarditis.
What is rubeola?
Measels, hard measels, or red measles. Transmitted by airborne aerosolized droplets or direct contact with nasal or pharyngeal secretions.
What is Rubella?
German measles, or 3-day measles.
What are the mumps?
Viral disease, anyone not vaccinated is at risk. Droplet spread or direct contact. Fever and swelling of salivary glands.
What is chicken pox?
Varicella zoster, viral illness distinctive rash of itchy, fluid filled vesicles. Direct contact or droplet spread of respiratory secretions.
What is pertussis?
Infection caused by the bacterium bordatella pertussis. Anyone without a vaccine is at risk.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Merger of two viruses, one from mammals and one from birds. Flu-like symptoms, direct contact or droplet.
What is pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs. Could be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms. More than 50 types. Cases caused by staph or strep may be communicable via resp secretions.
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