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- Nonspacific response to a foreign substance:
- Discriminate between self and nonself.
- Specific and adaptable
A substance capapable of eliciting an immune response (antibody production).
typically located on RBC's but can be on WBC's, plt's, & tissue
A protein produced by plasma cells that are specific to antigens.
T helper aka CD4
- Can recognize antigens and help B cells evolve into plasma cells.
- Produces cytokines that result in an inflamatory response
Mature in Bone marrow
- Antibody on the B cell membrane is the receptor for specific antigen.
- Evolve into plasma cells that excrete antiody produce memory B cells.
Primary Immune Response
IgM is produced. the 1st time an individual encounters an antigen and responds.
Lag phase for the primary response
When there is no detectable antibody 3 - 4 weeks
Anamnestic (secondary) Immune Response
--------------After presence of memory cells from the primary phase...
Results in IgG antibody production.
So, on the second exposure to an antigen memory cells generated in the primary response start this.
Less antigen is need for this respons.
Lag phase is hours - 1 to 2 days
Antigenic Determinant/ Epitope
Is the portion on the antigen that interacts directly with the antibody.
The degree to which an antigen is likely to elicit an immune response.
Affected by: Size, charge, solubility,complexity,accessability to the antigen, amount of antingen (dose)
Role of Complement
Red cells will activate comp to C3: Most blood group antibodies are capable of this. Coated RBC's may be removed prematurly from circulation.