Parasites Lab #1

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Parasites Lab #1
2013-01-26 19:09:06
Parasite Lab

Lab Practical Review
Show Answers:

  1. Phylum platyhelminthes
    • Class Turbellaria
    • Class Monogenea
    • Class Fecampiida
    • Class Cestoda
  2. Syndesmis
    • Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
    • ~Occupies anterior half of gut
    • ~tannish colored worm
  3. Suborder Dalyelloidea
    • Syndesmis
    • Syndisyrinx fraciscanus
    • *near center of the body the uterus contains one egg capsule that is elongated posteriorly into a long filament*

    • Anoplodium hymenae 
  4. Suborder Temnocephalida
    *Finger like tentables at the anterior end of the body and an adhesive sucker at the posterior end*
  5. Syndisrinx franciscanus
    • Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
    • ~bright red worm
  6. Anoplodium
    • Stichopus sp (local sea cucumber)
    • Syndesmis
    • Syndisyrinx fraciscanus
    • *near center of the body the uterus contains one egg capsule that is elongated posteriorly into a long filament*

    • Anoplodium hymenae 
  8. CLASS MONOGENEA (organisms)
    • Diclidophora merlanch
    • Diplozoon sp
    • Gryodactylus sp
    • Microcotyle sp.
    • Rajobchocotyl sp
    • Sphyranura sp.
    • Udonella caligorum
    • ~high degree of host specificity
    • ~have well-developed attachment organs- haptors
    • *have elaborate attachment structures*
    • ~monoecious
    • ~have ciliated egg stages- oncomiracidium (free-swimming larvae form)
  10. Class Monogenea
    • Gills of whiting (cod)
    • Note: Nervous system of suckers
  11. Class Monogenea
    • ~Gill parasites of marine fishes
    • ~ permanently pair in host (ensures x-fert)
  12. Class Monogenea
    • ~Gills and skin of freshwater fish
    • 100x
    • Note: Two anchors and many hooks.
    • Example: Polyembryony, ovoviviparous
  13. Class Monogenea
    • Gills of skate Raja rhina
    • ~each sucker has strong hook and prominent musculature
    • ~note: 6 suckers
    • DS
  14. Class Monogenea
    • Mudpuppy
    • 100x
    • ~Note: 2 acetabula and anchors on opisthaptor
  15. Class Monogenea
    Udonella caligorium
    • Caligoid copepod
    • ~hyperparasite
  16. Class Fecampiida
    Kronborgia sp.
    • Gnathophausia ingens (other crustaceans)
    • ~Example of parasitoid, parasitic castrator and protelean parasite.
  17. Class Fecampiida
    • Gills of horseshoe crab
    • DS
  18. CLASS TREMATODA (orders)
  19. DIGENEA (info)
    • ~most are equippied with two muscular suckers- largest is acetabulum- located on ventral surface 
    • ~digenea refers to the alternation of hosts with asexual repro occurring in intermediate hosts
    • ~1st IH- usually snail
    • ~DH always a vertebrate
  20. Order Plagiorchiformes (orgs)
    • Prosthogonimus macrorchis
    • Dicrocoelium dendrititcum
    • Paragonimus westermanii
    • Nanophyetus salmincola
    • Microphallus opacus
  21. Order Plagiorchiformes (info)
    • ~one of the most common digeen taxa in wild animal dissections
    • ~all use snails as 1st IH
  22. Order Plagiorchiformes
    Paragonimus westermanii
    • DH: Carnivorous mammals
    • 2IH: Crabs/crayfish
    • DS
    • Example of trophic transmission
    • Note: Lobed testis posterior to flowery ovary
  23. Order Plagorchiformes
    Dicroncoelium dendriticum
    • Bile duct of sheep and cattle
    • 2IH: Metacercariae on brain of ants
    • 40x
    • ~Example of behavior modification
    • ~testes are anterior to ovary

  24. Order Plagorchiformes
    Plagorchid fluke
    • Found in mouth of cotton-mouth moccasin
    • 40x
  25. Order Plagorchiformes
    Nanophyetus salmnicola
    • 2IH: Metacercariae in Salmon kidney
    • 100x
    • ~Vector for canine rickettsial disease (salmon poisoning)
  26. Order Plagorchiformes
    Microphallus opacus
    • DH: Crayfish, rather than a vertebrate definitive host
    • 40x
    • ~Example of Progenetic (adult occurs in a host species that is typically an intermediate host)
    • Echinostoma liei
    • Echinostoma revolutum
    • Fasciola hepatica
    • Fasciolopsis buski
    • Gasterodiscus augypticus
    • ~most have a well developed collar of spines around mouth
    • *eggs are exceptionally large*
    • ~ovary is anterior to testes
    • ~1st IH usually snail
  29. Order Echinostomatiformes
    Echinostoma liei
    • Mus musculus
    • ~Note: Large eggs in uterus (compared to E. revolutum), stacked testes with anterior ovary, collar of spines, small cirrus sac, no esophagus
  30. Order Echinostomatiformes
    Echinostoma revolutum
    • mammals and birds
    • DS
    • Note: Stacked testes with anterior ovary, also collar of spines, large cirrus sac, long esophagus, smaller eggs than E.liei
  31. Family Fasciolidae
    • Fasciola hepatica
    • Fasciolopsis buski

    • ~large, leaf-shaped parasites of mammals, primarily herbivores
    • ~liver of DH
    • ~No 2nd IH
  32. Order Echinostomatiformes
    Fasciola hepatica
    • Bile ducts of sheep, goats, cattle, other mammals
    • Note: Cephalic cone (anterior), high level of branching (ovary w/ testis posterior, cecum, and vitellaria), cercaria encyst in water
    • *large size and extreme branching of almost every organ system*
  33. Order Echinostomatiformes
    Fasciolopsis buski
    • ~most common human intestinal trematode
  34. Superfamily Paramphistomoidea
    • Gasterodiscus egypticus
    • ~parasites of mammals, esp. herbivores
    • ~no 2nd IH
  35. Order Echinostomatiformes
       Family Fasciolidae
          Superfamily Paramphistomoidea
             Gastrodicus aegypticus
    • ~Note: Amphistome (posterior sucker), pear shape. In jar in lab and on lining of water buffalo intestine.
  36. Order Opisthorchiformes
    Opisthorchis sinensis
    • ~Liver parasite of people in Asia, intensity dependent pathology, reservoir hosts are dogs and cats.
    • ~cercariae have forked tails
    • ~usually dioecious
    • ~1st IH and DH only 
    • ~adult worms live permanently in copula within host
    • Schistosoma mansoni
    • Schistosoma japonicum
    • Heterobilharzia americana
  39. Order Strigeiformes 
    Schistosoma mansoni (f)
    • IH- Snails (Biomphalaria)
    • DH- humans
    • 40x
  40. Order Strigeiformes 
    Schistosoma mansoni (m)
  41. Order Strigeiformes
    Heterobilharzia americana
  42. Prosthegonimus macrorchis
    • oviduct of domestic fowl
  43. Miracidium
    • ~larval stage that develops within the egg produced by the adult fluke in the DH
    • ~infective to 1ST IH
    • ~ciliated
  44. Sporocyst
    • ~primary (mother) sporocyst gives rise to a second generation asexually
    • ~second generation may be daugher sporocytes or rediae
    • embryos with the daugher sprocysts may produce another genration of sporocysts, rediae, or cercaria
    • ~ no pharynx* or digestive system
  45. Redia
    • ~have rudimentary digestive system - mouth, pharynx, and short unbranded gut
    • ~usually aggressive
  46. Cercaria
    • ~asexually produced by sporocysts or rediae
    • ~free-swimming, sperm-like creatures that encyst (next host, or suitible substrate) or penetrate the DH
  47. Metacercaria
    • ~encysted larval stage
    • ~infective to DH
    • ~always trophic transfer to DH
  48. Metacercaria of Euhaplorchis califroniencis (EUHA)
    • Fundulus parvipinnis
  49. Order Strigeiformes
    S. mansoni egg
    • Note large spine
    • 400x
  50. Order Strigeiformes
    S. haematobium egg
    • Note small terminal spine
    • 400x
  51. Strigeiformes
    S. japonium egg
    • note very small spine
    • 400x
  52. Dissection
    Cerithidea californica

    • Euhaplorchis californiensis
    • Himasthla rhigedana
  53. Dissection
    Biomphalaria glabrata

    found different life stages (metacercaria, cercaria, redia)
  54. "Mesozoa"
    • Phylum Dicyemida
    • Phylum Orthonectida
  55. Phylum Dicyemida
    • Class Rhombozoa
    •     Dicyemennea sp.- 
    • Octopus kidney
  56. Phylum Orthonectida
    • Ciliocincta sp.- polychaete Sabellaria
    • Rhopalura linei- marine nemertean worms
  57. Phylum Orthonectida (info)
    • marine inverts including nemerteans, brittle stars, annelids, turbellarians, and molluscs
    • have ciliated "jacket cells"
    • most castrate their host
  58. Phylum Platyhelminthes
       Class Cestoidea
          Subclass Cestodaria (orgs)
    • Amphilina sp.
    • Gyrocotyle sp
  59. Subclass Cestodaria
       Amphilina sp.
    • Sturgeons
    • Evolved by progenesis fro mpleuroceroid-like larvae of extinct types of pseudophylid
    • Reproductive system is unlike nay other tapeworm - eveolved independently from reproductive systems of adult worms
  60. Subclass Cestodaria
        Gyrocotyle sp.
    • Hydroloaus collei (ratfish)
    • frilly margins and large posterior holdfast (rosette)
    • Trypically live in pairs
    • Order Caryophyllidea
    • Order Trypanorhyncha
    • Order Tetraphyllidea
    • Order Pseudophyllidea
    • Order Cyclophyllidea
    • Order Proteocephala
  62. Describe Class Eucestoda
    • Polyzoic
    • Hexacanth oncosphere larvae
    • 3 body parts: scolex, neck, strobila
  63. Subclass Eucestoda
       Order Caryophyllidea
    • 1st IH- annelids
    • DH- Freshwater fish
    • 40x
    • Simple blob-like scolex (without special features)
    • Only order that is Monozoic
  64. Subclass Eucestoda
       Order Trypanorhyncha 
    • Elasmobranchs
    • Scolex with 4 eversible tentacles and 2 or 4 bothridia
    • note tentacles, tenatcular bulbs, retractor muscles
  65. Suborder Eucestoda
        Order Tetaphyllidea
    • Elasmobranchs
    • Family Onchobothriidae- 4 bothridia with hooks
    • Family Phylloobothriidae- 4 bothridia without hooks
  66. SO Eucestoda
       O Tetraphyllidea
         F Onchobothriidae
    • Elasmobranch
    • 4 bothridia with hooks
    • 100x