Pathology Chap 2

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pixy76
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195380
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Pathology Chap 2
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2013-01-26 00:26:34
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radiologic pathology
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Definitions for Chapter 2
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  1. Achondroplasia
    a hereditary, congenital disturbance that causes inadequate bone formation and results in peculiar form of dwarfism.
  2. Albers-Schonberg disease
    A form of osteosclerotic osteopetrosis; a benign skeletal anomaly that involves increased bone density in conjunction with fairly normal bone contour
  3. Anencephaly
    congenital absence of the cranial vault
  4. Aneurysmal bone cyst
    is an idiopathic condition and not a true neoplasm; cysts that generally occur in the metaphysis of long bones in individuals under the age of 20 years and consist of numerous blood-filled arteriovenous communications
  5. Ankylosing spondylitis
    A form of rheumatiod arthritis of unknown cause that affects the spine in a progressive fashion, eventually fusing the spine into a rigid block of bone
  6. Arthritis
    Inflammation in which lesions are confined to the joints
  7. Bursitis
    Inflammation of the bursae of the tendons with the subdeltoid bursa as the most common site
  8. Cancellous bone
    refers to the spongy, lattice-like structure of bone filled by bone marrow
  9. Chondrosarcoma
    A malignant bone tumor composed of atypical cartilage
  10. Clubfoot
    Deformity of the foot involving the talus
  11. Compact bone
    refers to the dense, outer portion of bone
  12. Craniosynostoses
    Premature or early closure of the sutures of the skull
  13. Craniotubular dysplasias
    are a group of rare autosomal recessive hereditary dideases mainly resulting in abnormal or defective bone contour of the cranium and long bones
  14. Developmental dysplasia of the hip
    malformation of the acetabulum making the head of the femur displaced superiorly and posteriorly
  15. Diaphysis
    Shaft of a long bone
  16. Diploe
    the spongy bone tissue found between the 2 tables of the cranial bones
  17. E. coli
    species of ameba normally found in the upper intestinal tract
  18. Endochondroma
    a benign growth of cartilage arising in the metaphysis of a bone
  19. Epiphysis
    an ossification or growth center in the bones of children
  20. Ewing's sarcoma
    A primary malignant bone tumor arising in medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindric bones
  21. Exostosis
    benign bone growth, projecting outward from the bony cortex
  22. Ganglion
    cystic swelling that develops in connection with a tendon sheath, usually on the back of the wrist
  23. Giant cell tumor
    a neoplastic growth of the skeletal system consisting of numerous multinucleated osteoclastic giant cells
  24. Gouty arthritis
    An inherited, metabolic disorder with excess amounts of uric acid produced and deposited in the joint and adjacent bone, most commonly in the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe
  25. Involucrum
    a shell or sheath of new supporting bone laid down by periosteum around a sequestrum of necrosed bone
  26. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
    also known as Still's disease, affects children under 16 and is similar to the adult form of RA
  27. Medullary canal
    inner spongy or cancellous portion of a long bone where bone marrow is produced
  28. Metaphysis
    the growing portion of bone
  29. Osteoarthritis
    Noninflammatory degenerative joint disease occurring mainly in older persons, producing gradual deterioration of the joint cartilage
  30. Osteoblastoma
    tumors of the bone arising from osteoblasts
  31. Osteoblasts
    the bone forming cells responsible for bone growth, ossification, and regeneration
  32. Osteochondroma
    a benign tumor of adult bone capped by cartilage
  33. Osteoclastoma
    A tumor that is usually benign and charactized by osteolytic areas, most commonly found around the knee and wrist of young adults and composed of numerous multinucleated osteoclasts
  34. Osteoclasts
    cells that are associated with absorption and removal of bone
  35. Osteogenesis imperfecta
    a congenital disease in which the bones are abnormally brittle and subject to fractures
  36. Osteoid osteoma
    a benign tumor of bone like structure that develops on a bone and sometimes on other structures
  37. Osteoma
    is a less frequent benign growth most commonly located in the skull
  38. Osteomyelitis
    infection of bone, most often casued by Staphylococcus, which may localize or spread to the bone to involve the marrow and other bone tissues
  39. Osteopetrosis
    a hereditary disease characterized by abnormaly dense bone, likely a result of faulty bone resorption
  40. Osteophytes
    osseous outgrowths (spurs)
  41. Osteosarcoma
    a primary malignancy of bone usually arising in the metaphysis, most commonly around the knee
  42. Polydactyly
    the presence of more than 5 digits
  43. Pott's disease
    tuberculosis of the spine
  44. Psoriatic arthritis
    an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis of the skin
  45. Pyogenic arthritis
    joint inflammation that occurs secondary to other infections
  46. Reiter's syndrome
    a group of symptoms associated with complications of urethritis
  47. Rheumatoid arthritis
    a chronic, systemic disease primarily of joints, characterized by overgrowth of synovial tissues and articular structures and progressive destruction of cartilage, bone and supporting structures
  48. Scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
  49. Sequestrum
    a piece of dead, devascularized bone that seperates from living bone during the process of necrosis
  50. Simple unicameral bone cyst
    is a wall of fibrous tissue filled with fluid
  51. Spina bifida
     a developmental anomaly characterized by incomplete closure of the vertebral canal, through which the choriomeninges may or may not protrude
  52. Spondylolisthesis
    forward displacement of one vertebra over another usually caused by a developmental defect in the pars interarticularis (commonly at L5-S1 junction)
  53. Spondylolysis
    a condition marked by a cleft or breaking down of the body of a vertebra between the superior and inferior articular processes
  54. Stahpylococcus aureus
    gram-positive micrococcaceae commonly present on the skin and mucus membrane
  55. Syndactyly
    a webbing or fusion of digits
  56. Tendonitis
    inflammation of a tendon
  57. Tenosynovitis
    inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
  58. Trabeculae
    the spongy substance found within a bone
  59. Trabecular pattern
    intricate, web like bony structure is visible on a properly exposed radiograph of the skeletal system
  60. Transitional vertebra
    a vertebra that assumes the charactistics of the vertebrae on each side of a major spine division
  61. Tuberculosis
     any of the infectious diseases of man and animals caused by Myobacterium tuberculosis generally affecting the lungs in the human body
  62. Whiplash
    hyperextension-flexion injury of the spine

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