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Endocrine and nervous system are sometimes put together and known as what?
System of control
The NS effect and duration is what?
Effect is LOCALIZED and duration is VERY SHORT
The Endocrine System's effect and duration is what?
Effect is GENERAL and duration is MUCH LONGER
2 types of glands in the body?
Exocrine and Endocrine
What are Exocrine glands?
glands that secrete product through a duct onto a body surface or into a body cavity
Is there an exocrine system?
NO...exocrine glands are parts of other systems
What are Endocrine glands?
glands that secrete their product (hormones) directly into the blood without a duct
What are hormones?
Products of an endocrine gland
What make up the Endocrine system?
Are endocrine glands vascular?
YES...endocrine glands are some of the most vascular tissue in the body because they secrete their product directly into the blood
What is Target Tissue?
cells that have receptor sites for a particular hormone are said to be that hormones target tissue and is the only tissue that hormone effects
Name 2 types of hormones
Protein and Steroid
What are protein hormones?
Proteins or Protein derivatives.
Where are Protein hormone's receptor cells? Why are they there?
Receptor cells are ON THE CELL MEMBRANE. Membrane is made of phospholipids and protein hormones CANNOT pass through
What type of hormone are most hormones?
Which are faster acting, Protein or Steroid hormones? Why?
- Protein are because molecules already exist inside the cell and simply need activated.
- Steroid hormones must create mRNA and proteins from scratch inside the cell and therefore are slower acting
What are steroid hormones?
Lipid derivatives (derivatives of cholesterol)
Where are steroid hormone's receptor sites? Why?
IN THE CYTOPLASM of the cell. Steroid hormones are deriv. of lipids and can pass thru the cell membrane (made of phospholipids)
Why must hormone levels be regulated within narrow limits?
- Because hormones are VERY potantsmall amts have BIG effect
What are the 3 main methods of hormone regulation? Which is the most common?
- Negative feedback- Most common
- Tropic hormones
- Direct nervous stimulation
Explain Negative Feedback hormone regulation
- Gland is sensitive to the levels of substance that the hormone REGULATES (NOT hormone levels)
- Pulls it back to center
ex pancreas sensitive to glucose levels high or low adjusts how much insulin we do or dont need
Explain Tropic hormones regulation
glands secrete hormones in response to other (tropic hormone
gland A secretes hormone a(tropic)--->causes gland b to produce Hormone b
Explain Direct Nervous Stimulation
EX- Sympathetic ns stimulates adrenal to produce epinephrine and norepinephrine
What is another term for Pituitary gland?
What is the Pituitary gland connected to the hypothalamus by?
What does the Hypophysis produce?
GH or growth hormone
What is another name for the anterior pituitary gland?
How are the adenohypophysis's secretions regulated?
hypothalamus relases hormones into the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system(vein and capillary network in infundibulum) which carries them to anterior pituitary regulating secretions
What is another name for the posterior pituitary gland?
How are the neurohypophysis's hormones regulated?
axons from hypothalamus travel down infundibulumand terminate in the neurohypophysis
Whare is the Thyroid gland?
next to trachea and below the larynx
What does the thyroid gland produce?
thyroxine, triiodothyronine and calcitonin
What do both the thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones require for synthesis?
What does Calcitonin do? What are the 3 ways it does this?
IT REDUCES BLOOD CALCIUM
- -decreases osteoclast activity
- -decreases reabsorption of calcium by kidneys
- -decreases absorption of calcium by intestines
Where are the adrenal glands?
One on top of each kidney
What are the two parts to adrenal glands?
cortex and medulla
What is the adrenal cortex? What does it do?
OUTER part of the adrenal glands
Produces Steroid hormones
What is the adrenal Medulla? What does it do?
INNER part of adrenal glands
produces protein hormones epinephrine and norepinphrine
What is special about protein hormones epinephrine and norepinphrine?
THEY ARE SYNERGISTIC (work together)
What is a ganglion?
Cluster of cells
Is the pancreas endo or exo crine gland? Why?
IT IS BOTH
Exocrine b/c it secretes digestive enzymes into duodenum
- Endocrine because it produces hormones insulin and glucagon directly into blood
What are the islets of Langerhans?
- IN THE PANCREAS- over a million small groups of cells that contain both alpha(glucagon producing) and beta(insulin producing) cells
- WIDESPREAD throughout pancreas. Not localized to one area or another
What makes up the urinary system?
- 2 Kidneys
- 2 Ureters
- Urinary bladder
What are 4 functions of the urinary system?
- Rids body of wastes
- Regulates fluid volume
- Controls blood ph
- Maintains electrolye concentrations
What do the Ureters do?
urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
What does the Urethra do?
urine from urinary bladder to the outside world
What does the Urinary bladder do?
stores urine until micturation (urination)
What is the Mucous membrane of the bladder?
it is an inner lining of TRANSITIONAL epithelium
What are rugae in the bladder?
folds in mucosa that act like pleats in a curtain allowing further expansion of the bladder (keeps it from tearing)
What is the specialized smooth muscle in the bladder referred to as?
detrusor muscle (stretchy)
What do the kidneys do?
filter blood and produce urine
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Name the two parts of the Nephron. What is each's function?
Name the two parts of the renal corpuscle and explain
-Glomerulus-cluster of capillaries
-Bowmans capsule-double layered epithelial capsule that surrounds glomerulus
Name the three parts of the renal tubule
-proximal convoluted tubule
-distal convoluted tubule
What are one of the main pH regulators of the body?
What percentage of body weight is attributed to Body Fluids? Breakdown
60% attributed to body wt
- 1/3 extracellular-4/5 of extracellular is interstitial
- 1/5 of extracellular is blood plasma
What is interstitial fluid?
The fluid found in tissue cells
What are electrolytes?
dissolve in a solution to form ions (charged particles)
What are Cations?
Positively charged ions
What are Anions?
Negatively charged ions
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