ch 21

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ch 21
2010-05-16 22:24:16


History ch 21
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  1. A pardon issued by the Roman Catholic Church that excused individuals from doing penance for their sins (including those of dead souls in Purgatory); sales of these pardons helped finance the construction of St. Peter’s basilica in Rome
  2. A list of propositions critical of Vatican policies that Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk, offered to debate with Church authorities (1517)
    95 Thesis
  3. The most serious penalty the Roman Catholic Church can inflict; the guilty individual is excluded from all participation in ecclesiastical society
  4. The organized but swiftly ramifying spiritual dissent against the established order of the Roman Catholic church, beginning in the 1520s in Germany and Switzerland
    Protestant Reformation
  5. The language of ordinary people in everyday use, as opposed to Latin
  6. Doctrines of the Swiss Reformed church, emphasizing strict morality and the “election” of individuals predestined before their birth to be saved by God
  7. English Protestant church established by Henry VIII (1533), with the English monarch as its titular head
    Anglican Church
  8. A reform movement aimed at clarifying differences between Roman and Protestant churches, reclaiming Protestants who had left the Catholic church, and deepening the spirituality of the Catholic community. [Formerly referred to as the ‘Counter Reformation’]
    Catholic Reformation
  9. Catholic officials met (1545-1563) to define and reform theological doctrines and improve educational standards in parochial schools and seminaries
    Council of Trent
  10. Founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1540, the Society of Jesus trained seminarians rigorously in all subjects to become priests and missionaries for the Roman Catholic church
    Jesuit Order
  11. The arrest and trial of 110,000 individuals, resulting in 60,000 executions during the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe and the American colonies
    Witch Hunts
  12. Fleet of warships sent by Philip II to invade England, dethrone Elizabeth I, and return England to Roman Catholicism (1588); failed to achieve any of these objectives
    Spanish Armada
  13. Most destructive conflict in Europe until 20th century; fought mainly in Germany; intensified and prolonged by religious strife between Protestants and Catholics (1618-1648)
    Thirty Years’ War
  14. Habsburg emperor who controlled Spain, Spanish America, and Swiss, Italian, Belgian, and Austrian territories but failed to achieve supremacy in Europe because of Protestant rebellions and Ottoman invasions
    Charles V
  15. Early modern rulers (such as Henry VIII and Francis I) who created powerful, centralized kingdoms based on effective taxation, modernized finances, and limitation of aristocratic and ecclesiastical privilege
    “New Monarchs"
  16. Royal agency founded by Fernando and Isabel (1478), licensed by the pope, and instituted to detect and punish heresy – and threats to Catholic monarchical and imperial power
    Spanish Inquisition
  17. Political and religious conflict between king and Parliament (1642-1649) that resulted in the execution of Charles I and the establishment of Puritan dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell
    English Civil War
  18. The area of the Netherlands which, under Calvinist leadership, declared independence from Catholic Spain in 1581; foundation of the Dutch Republic
    United Provinces
  19. The theory that claimed royal authority from God
    Divine Right of Kings
  20. Louis XIV of France (r. 1643-1715), who claimed to be his realm (“L’etat c’est moi.”)
    The Sun King
  21. Louis XIV’s palace near Paris; largest building in Europe (1670s)
  22. Russian tsars, including Peter I and Catherine II, who ruled the expanding empire from 1613-1917
    Romanov Dynasty
  23. Former Russian soldier who led a serious rebellion against the nobility and the government of Catherine II (1773-1774); captured and beheaded
    Yemelian Pugachev
  24. Treaty which ended the Thirty Years’ War and recognized the social, religious, and political rights of sovereign nation-states (1648); officially ended the religious unity of Europe
    Peace of Westphalia
  25. Principal foundation of European diplomacy in early modern period: coalitions of states formed to deny rising powers the chance to dominate the continent
    Balance of Power
  26. An economic system in which private parties make their goods and services available on a free market and seek to take advantage of market conditions to profit from their activities
  27. Business organizations which accumulated unprecedented amounts of capital by selling shares of ownership and spreading the risks of losses among its investors
    Joint-Stock Companies
  28. A strategy used by early capitalist entrepreneurs to sidestep the control of guilds by distributing work to independent artisans in rural households
    Putting-Out System
  29. A labor system that required peasants to provide labor services for landowners and prevented them from marrying or moving away without their landlords’ permission; persisted in Russia until 1861
  30. Scottish philosopher who argued in The Wealth of Nations (1776) that society would prosper when individuals are free to pursue their own economic interests (laissez-faire capitalism)
    Adam Smith
  31. Alexandrian Greek astronomer (c. 90-c.168 CE) who theorized that the Sun revolves around Earth, the stationary center of the nine-sphered, crystalline cosmos
    Claudius Ptolemy
  32. Polish astronomer and mathematician who argued that the Sun occupies the center of the universe, with Earth and other planets orbiting around it
    Nicholaus Copernicus
  33. German mathematician (1571-1630) who used Copernican astronomy to discover that planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular
    Johannes Kepler
  34. Italian astronomer and mathematician (1564-1642) who used early-model telescopes to discover craters on the Moon, sunspots, and moons orbiting Jupiter
    Galileo Galilei
  35. English mathematician (1642-1727) who synthesized astronomical observation and analytical physics to formulate his theory of universal gravitation, the force that regulates the motion of all observable objects in the universe
    Isaac Newton
  36. A European school of thought that rejected Aristotelian philosophy and the Christian religion as sources of authority in the quest for rational analysis of human life and the physical universe
    The Enlightenment
  37. French philosopher and creative writer (1694-1778) who epitomized the spirit of the Enlightenment by championing individual freedom and attacking intolerant and oppressive institutions; he often satirized the French monarchy and the Roman Catholic church
  38. The belief that a supreme being created the universe, which operates by itself according to rational and natural laws. Voltaire, Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Madison, Paine, and John Adams were deists.