Structure/Function/Location: 46

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  1. testis
    • Structure: consist of highly coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, scattered in connective tissue between the tubules
    • Function: male reproductive organ, or gonad, in which sperm and reproductive hormones are produced
    • Location: located in a sac of skin known as the scrotum, where they descend to after formation in the abdomen
  2. epidydimis
    • Structure: highly coiled duct that is 6-m long 
    • Function: sperm are stored here and also gain motility in here; during ejaculation
    • Location: sits atop the testes in the scrotum
  3. Vas (ductus) deferens
    • Structure: straight tube that leads from the epidydims into the seminal vesicle
    • function: joins a duct from the seminal vesicle to form the short ejaculatory duct; sperm use this tube to travel from the epidydimis to the urethra
    • Location: each vas deferens extends around and behind the urinary bladder; one from each epidydimis
  4. Seminal vesicles
    • Structure: 2 glands 
    • Function: contributes 70% to volume of sperm; produce a yellowish liquid high in fructose, mucus, a coagulating enzyme, prostaglandins, and absorbic acid; fructose provides energy for the movement of the flagella
    • Location: behind bladder; at the base of the bladder and connected to the prostate
  5. Ejaculatory ducts
    • Structure: short tube; vas deferens joins a duct from the seminal vesicle to form this short tube
    • Function: opens into the urethra 
    • Location: between the vas deferens and urethra
  6. Prostate Gland
    • Structure: single gland; walnut-sized; has series of ducts leading right into urethra
    • Function: secretes an acid-neutralizing component of semen; secretes a milky secretion that helps neutralize the acidity of the sperm environment; contributes 25% to semen 
    • Location: under the urinary bladder
  7. Bulbourethral glands
    • Structure: small glands (pair) with a duct that releases into the urethra
    • Function: secretes mucus that neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra and neutralizes the acidity of the vaginal tract; mucus provides a coating and lubricates the top of the penis for intercourse
    • Location: along the urethra below the prostate; near base of penis
  8. Urethra
    • Structure: single tube that is part of the urinary system in females, and part of both the reproductive and urinary system in males
    • Function: in general, it transports urine; in male, it also transports semen
    • Location: located in the corpus spongiosum of the penis and has an opening in the female reproductive system leading to the outside
  9. Penis
    • Structure: copulatory organ made mostly of erectile tissue with three cylinders of spongy erectile tissue; main shaft is covered by thick skiin; the head (glans) is much thinner and is more sensitive; the human glans is covered by a fold of skin called the prepuce
    • Function: the erectile tissue fills with blood allowing sealing off of the veins and an erection that enables the penis to enter the vagina and place the sperm in the female's body
    • Location: outside the body
  10. Corpus Spongiosum
    • Structure: a cylinder of erectile tissue within the penis (the center cylinder)
    • Function: provides the passageway through which the urethra runs through
    • Location: in the penis; middle column
  11. Ovary
    • Structure: not orderly like testes: follicles are haphazardly arranged in connective tissue; no productive covering
    • outside: cells called germinal epithelium
    • contains hundreds of immature follicles; not confluent with the rest of the system; not joined, just in close proximity
    • Function: produce females gametes (eggs or ova) and reproductive hormones
    • Location: sits in the pelvic cavity
  12. Fallopian Tubes
    • Structure: infundibulum, ampulla, and the isthmus; a tube passing from the ovary to the vagina in invertebrates or to the uterus in vertebrates; ciliated mucus membrane with a muscular wall; dimensions vary along length, with the inside diameter near the uterus being narrow
    • Function: transport egg into uterus; transport sperm to egg
    • Location: extends from the uterus toward each ovary
  13. Uterus
    • Structure: thick, muscular organ that can expand during pregnancy to accommodate a 4-kg fetus; its wall consists of the endometrium, myometrium, and the perimetrium; neck of the uterus is the cervix; single-pear shaped organ with three parts: fundus, body, cervix
    • Function: house embryo; contributes to formation of the placenta and houses developing fetus until ready for birth
    • Location: located in the female pelvis between urinary bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly
  14. Vagina
    • Structure: muscular but elastic chamber 
    • Function: site for insertion of the penis and deposition of sperm during copulation; serves as birth canal through which baby is born
    • Location: extends from the cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia (vulva)
  15. Pudendum or vulva
    • Structure: contain the labia majora, which enclose and protect the rest of the vulva, the labia minora; two hole openings, the vaginal and urethral; labia minora, clitoris, hymen
    • Function: collective term for the external genitalia
    • Location:located on the external part of body
  16. First Polar Body
    • structure: 1n/2n nucleus
    • Function: remove a set of homologs from the developing egg Get rid of a set of chromosomes
    • Location: ovary
  17. Second Polar Bodies
    • Structure: 1n/1n (small cell)
    • Function: because of eccentric location of nucleus, it reduces the set of sister chromatids from the secondary oocyte, leaving a completely haploid egg
  18. Corpus Luteum
    • Structure:                          
    • the healing of the ruptured follicle
    • (Graffian) to form the corpus luteum (the yellow body), Which are the follicle cells that remained in the ovary after the oocyte and some of its follicle cells are released
    • Function: extremely important body; produces and secretes mainly progesterone
    • Location: ovary
  19. Monocot Structure
    •                                                               i.      Generally have parallel veination
    •                                                             ii.      3 carpals, 3 petals or multiples of three
    •                                                           iii.      Generally have a fibrous root system
    •                                                           iv.      Embryo has one cotyledon or seedling for embryo to feed on
    •                                                             v.      Usually only live a year
  20. Dicot Structure
    •                                                               i.      Most of your trees and shrubs
    •                                                             ii.      Have reticular veination
    • 1.      Branched arrangement
    •                                                           iii.      Four to five carpal petals
    •                                                           iv.      Usually have a taproot system
    • 1.      One main root, which can have lots of little roots coming off of it
    •                                                             v.      Embryos have two seedlings or cotyledons
    •                                                           vi.      Usually perennial 
  21. Rhizomes
    •                                                               i.      Horizontal, underground stems
    •                                                             ii.      If underground, periodically, the part of the stem will form shoots to give off new plants
    •                                                           iii.      Examples: iris and some grasses
  22. Tubers
    •                                                               i.      Plants that have enlarged stems that are used for storage of the carbohydrate that the plant makes
    • 1.      Where the plant stores its extra nutrients that it doesn’t need
    •                                                             ii.      If you look at a tuber and leave it hanging around long enough, you have little “eyes” sprouting, called lateral buds
    •                                                           iii.      Potato
  23. Bulbs
    •                                                               i.      Shortened underground stems
    • 1.      Not horizontal; short and sprout with fleshy leaves (usually)
    • Tulips, lilies, onions, and daffodils 
  24. Stolons
    •                                                               i.      Also called runners
    •                                                             ii.      Also horizontal stems, but they are above ground
    •                                                           iii.      Same as rhizomes, but above ground         
    • 1.      They will sprout off every once in a while
    •                                                           iv.      Strawberries
  25. Flower
    • a.      Flower is arranged in whorls, or layers
    • b.      Four whorls that make up a flower
    •                                                               i.      Outer whorls (from outside to in) are sepals and petals (more inner than sepals)
    •                                                             ii.      After the sepals and petals, the next whorls are the stamens
    • 1.      Male part of plant
    •                                                           iii.      The innermost whorls are the carpals (pistils)
    • 1.      Female part of flower
  26. Whorls: Carpels or Pistils
    • a.      Innermost whorl- CARPELS or PISTILS (female)
    •                                                               i.      Consist of:
    • 1.       a stigma [of carpal]
    • a.      Sticky pad
    • b.      Function: catch the pollen
    • 2.       a style
    • a.      Once pollen is there, then the style is the tube, which leads to the ovary
    • b.      Allow pollen to get to ovary
    • 3.       an ovary with ovules (gametes)
    • a.      Where fertilization takes place
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Where pollen and ovules meet and fuse
    • b.      How many ovules depends on plant
  27. Whorls: Stamen
    • a.      Next whorl out- STAMEN
    •                                                               i.      Male portion of plant
    •                                                             ii.      Consists of:
    • 1.      Anther
    • a.      That portion that produces the pollen, which is the male gamete
    • 2.      Filament
    • a.      The stalk that holds the anther to the flower
  28. Whorls: Petals
    • a.      Next outer whort- PETALS
    •                                                               i.      Colorful portions of the flower
    •                                                             ii.      Function: lure insects, birds, other organisms, to the flower for pollination 
  29. Whorls: Sepals
    • a.      Outermost- SEPALS
    •                                                               i.      Generally green
    •                                                             ii.      Coverings or protections of flowers before they’re open
    •                                                           iii.      Protect the bud (flower before it’s opened)
    • 1.      When the flower opens up, the sepals may turn brown
    •                                                           iv.      No function once opened up; they’ve done their job
  30. Complete and Incomplete
    • a.      Not all flowers have all four whorls
    •                                                               i.      If they do, they are called complete flowers
    • 1.      Not all complete flowers are self-fertilizing; they need cross-fertilization
    •                                                             ii.      Incomplete means its missing one or more whorls
    • Usually carpals or stamens
  31. Perfect and Imperfect
    •                                                               i.      Perfect: if it has both carpals (pistils) and stamens
    •                                                             ii.      Imperfect: has either carpals (pistils) or stamens, but not both
  32. Simple Fruits
  33. Aggregate Fruits
  34. Multiple Fruits
  35. Accessory Fruits
Card Set:
Structure/Function/Location: 46
2013-02-01 16:15:43
BIO 220

Chapter 46
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