Biology 101 Chapter 2

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Author:
amcmullen
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195469
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Biology 101 Chapter 2
Updated:
2013-02-22 19:20:19
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Life Chemical Basis
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  1. Atoms
    Particle that is a fundamental building block of all matter
  2. Atomic Number
    Number of protons in the atomic nucleus; determines the element
  3. Charge
    Electrical Property. Opposite charges attract, and like charges repel
  4. Electron
    Negatively charged subatomic particle that occupies orbitals around an atomic nucleus
  5. Element
    A pure substance that consists only of atoms with the same number or protons
  6. Isotopes
    Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry
  7. Mass Number
    Total Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an element's atoms
  8. Neutron
    Uncharged subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus
  9. Nucleus
    Core of an atom; occupied by protons and neutrons
  10. Periodic Table
    Tabular arrangement of the elements by atomic number
  11. Proton
    Positively charged subatomic particle that occurs in the nucleus of all atoms
  12. Radioactive Decay
    Process by which atoms of a radioactive isotope emit energy and/or subatomic particles when their nucleus spontaneously disintegrates
  13. Radioisotope
    Isotope with an unstable nucleus
  14. Tracer
    Substance with a detectable component, such as a molecule labeled with a radioisotope
  15. Free Radical
    Atom with an unpaired electron
  16. Ion
    Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons
  17. Shell Model
    Model of electron distribution in an atom
  18. Chemical Bond
    An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact
  19. Compound
    Molecule that has atoms of more than one element
  20. Covalent Bond
    Chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons
  21. Electronegativity
    Measure of the ability of an atom to pull electrons away from other atoms
  22. Ionic Bond
    Chemical bond that consists of a strong mutual attractions between ions of opposite charge
  23. Molecule
    Group of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
  24. Polarity
    Separation of charge into positive and negative regions
  25. Cohesion
    Property of a substance that arises from the tendency of its molecules to resist separating from one another
  26. Evaporation
    Transition of a liquid to a gas
  27. Hydrogen Bond
    Attraction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond
  28. Hydrophilic
    Describes a substance that dissolves easily in water
  29. Hydrophobic
    Describes a substance that resists dissolving in water
  30. Mixture
    An intermingling of two or more types of molecules
  31. Salt
    Ionic compound that releases ions other than H+ and OH- when it dissolves in water
  32. Solute
    A dissolved substance
  33. Solution
    Homogeneous mixture
  34. Solvent
    Substance that can dissolve other substances
  35. Temperature
    Measure of molecular motion
  36. Acid
    Substance that releases hydrogen ions in water
  37. Base
    Substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water
  38. Buffer System
    Set of chemicals that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH
  39. Concentration
    The number of molecules or ions per unit volume of a solution
  40. pH
    A measure of the number of hydrogen ions in a fluid

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