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A programmable, electronic device that accepts data input, performs processing operations on that data, and outputs and stores the results.
entering data into the computer
performing operations on the data
presenting the results
saving data, programs, or output for future use
The transmission of data from one device to another.
Information processing cycle
(IPOS cycle or information processing cycle)
- Input Processing Output Storage
- User Computer Computer Computer
- types in adds displays saves data
- numbers numbers result for future
- Any fact or set of facts can become computer data.
- Ex: letter to a friend, numbers in a monthly budget, images in a photo, notes in a song, or facts stored in an employee record.
The physical parts of a computer
Programs or instructions used to tell the computer what to do to accomplish tasks.
A person who uses a computer to perform tasks or obtain information.
To use data, applications, and resources stored on computers accessed over the Internet rather than on users' computers.
- A tiny computer embedded in a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that product.
- Ex: dishwashers, microwaves, ovens, coffee makers, thermostats, answering machines, treadmills, sewing machines...
A very small communications device with built-in computing or Internet capability.
- Microprocessor contains the core processing capabilities of an entire computer on a single chip.
- The original IBM PC and Apple Macintosh computers & most of today's modern computers, fall into this category.
Personal computer (PC)
A type of computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time.
- A personal computer designed to fit on or next to a desk.
- Two standards/platforms: PC-compatible or Macintosh
- Ex: 1)Tower *most commonly used style 2) desktop case - (AIO case)
- A small personal computer designed to be carried around easily.
- (portable computers now outsell desktops)
Notebook computer (laptop computer)
A small personal computer designed to be carried around easily
A portable computer about the size of a notebook that is designed to be used with an electronic pen. (digital pen or stylus)
(aka mini-notebooks, mini-laptops, and ultra-portable computers)
A very small notebook computer
Ultra-mobile PC (UMPC)
(aka handheld computers)
A portable personal computer that is small enough to fit in one hand
- A computer that must be connected to a network to perform processing or storage tasks.
- Ex: A thin client and Internet appliance
Thin client (aka a network computer, or NC)
- A device designed to access a network for processing and data storage instead of performing those tasks locally.
- Ex: hotel lobby for Internet access, rm to rm calls, free phone calls via Internet
- Main advantage: overall lower cost (hardware, software, maintenance, power & cooling)
- Disadvantages: ltd or no local storage, not a stand-alone
Internet appliance (aka Internet device)
- A specialized network computer designed primarily for Internet access and/or email exchange.
- Ex: built in refrigerator or telephone; chumby stand-alone Internet device; gaming consoles (Wii, Playstation3), new tv sets, video players, etc.
Midrange server (aka minicomputer)
- A medium-sized computer used to host programs and data for a small network.
- Can serve many users at one time. Used in small-med sized businesses (medical or dental offices) or in school computer labs.
- The creation of virtual versions of a computing resource.
- Offers increased efficiency.
Mainframe computer (referred to as high-end servers or enterprise-class servers)
- A computer used in large organizations that manage large amounts of centralized date and run multiple programs simultaneously.
- Larger, more powerful, and more expensive than midrange servers. It can serve thousands of users
- The fastest, most expensive, and most powerful type of computer.
- Generally, run 1 program at a time as fast as possible.
- Ex: sending astronauts into space, control missile guidance systems & satellites, weather forecasting, 3D medical imaging...
A supercomputer composed of numerous smaller computers connected together to act as a single computer.
Computers and other devices that are connected to share hardware, software, and data.
- The larges and most well-known computer network, linking millions of computers all over the world.
- Technically, a network of networks; consisting of thousands of networks that can all access each other via the main backbone infrastructure of the Internet.
Internet service provider (ISP)
- A business or other organization that provides Internet access to others, typically for a fee.
- ISP servers are continually connected to a larger network, called a regional network, which is connected to one of the major high-speed networks w/in the country, called the backbone network.
World Wide Web (Web or WWW)
The collection of Web pages available through the Internet
A document located on a Web server
A collection of related Web pages. (web pages belonging to one individual or company)
- A computer continually connected to the Internet that stores Web pages accessible through the Internet.
- Can be accessed at any time by anyone with a computer or other Web-enabled device and an Internet connection.
- A program used to view Web pages.
- Ex: Internet Explorer (IE), Chrome, Safari, Opera, or Firefox.
An address (unique numeric or text-based) that identifies a computer, person, or Web page on the Internet, such as an IP address & domain name (computers), URLs (Web pages), or email address (people).
IP address (Internet Protocol)
- A numeric Internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the Internet
- Ex: 18.104.22.168
- A text-based Internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the Internet.
- Corresponds to a computer's IP address, but searching for domain name is easier than IP address.
- Ex: microsoft.com
URL (uniform resource locator)
- An Internet address that uniquely identifies a Web page.
- Ex: http:// (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) for regular Web pages
- https:// (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) for secure Web pages
- ftp:// (File Transfer Protocol) used to upload and download files
Breakdown of URL for a Web page
- http:// - Web page URLs usu. begin with this standard protocol identifier
- twitter.com/ - identifies the Web server hosting the Web page
- jobs/ - identifies the folder(s) in which the Web page is stored, if necessary
- index.html - identifies the Web page document that is to be retrieved and displayed
An Internet address consisting of a username and computer domain name that uniquely identifies a person on the Internet.
Username (an identifying name)
- A name that uniquely identifies a user on a specific computer network.
- As in an email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Username: jsmith
- domain name: cengage.com
surf the Web
To use a Web browser to view Web pages
- Messages sent from one user to another over the Internet or other network
- can be sent via email program (Outlook) or via a Web mail service (gmail or Window's Live Mail)
Intellectual property rights
- The legal rights to which creators of original creative works are entitled
- Ex: music & movies; paintings, computer graphics, and other works of art; books, poetry, symbols, names, designs
3 Types of Intellectual Property Rights
Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents
- The legal right to sell, publish, or distribute an original artistic or literary work; it is held by the creator of a work as soon as it exists in physical form.
- applies to both published & unpublished works and remain in effect until 70 yrs after the creator's death.
- Exception: fair use - permits limited duplication and use of a portion of copyrighted material for specific purposes.
- A word, phrase, symbol, or design (or a combo. of these) that identifies goods or services.
- Ex: I'm lovin' it (McDonalds), ebay, iPod, and their symbols
Digital watermark (a rights-protection tool)
- A subtle alteration of digital content that identifies the copyright holder.
- not noticeable when work is viewed or played
Digital rights management (DRM) software
- Software used to protect and manage the rights of creators of digital content.
- limits who can view, print, or copy digital content
Presenting someone else's work as your own
Overall standards of moral conduct
- Standards of moral conduct as they relate to computer use.
- Ex: distributing computer viruses, spam, and spyware; distributing copies of software, movies, music & other digital content.
Standards of moral conduct that guide a business's policies, decisions, and actions.
Repetitive stress injury (RSI)
A type of injury, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), that is caused by performing the same physical movements over & over again.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
A painful and crippling condition affecting the hands and wrists that can be caused by computer use.
A condition in which the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist are swollen and irritated
Computer vision syndrome (CVS)
a collection of eye and vision problems, including eyestrain or eye fatigue, dry eyes, burning eyes, light sensitivity, and blurred vision.
- The use of computers in an environmentally friendly manner
- Ex: minimizing the use of natural resources, such as energy and paper, using ENERGY STAR hardware
- *Avg US household spends an est. $100/yr powering devices that are turned off or in standby mode.
A certification, usually issued by a government agency, that identifies a device as meeting minimal environmental performance specifications.
- The science of fitting a work environment to the people who work there.
- Ex: Tilt-and-swivel monitor, Document holder, Proper user position, Adjustable table/desk, Footrest, Adjustable chair.
- Electronic trash or waste, such as discarded computer components
- *According to most estimates, at least 70% of all discarded computer equip ends up in landfills and in foreign countries with lower recycling costs, cheaper labor, & lax environmental stds than the US.
- computers and other hardware devices that are connected to share hardware, software, and data.
- used extensively throughout society-people around the world use them every day in business, at school, at home, and on the go.
- The use of computers and networking technology to enable an individual to work from a remote location
- individuals work from a remote location and communicate with their places of business and clients via networking technologies
a network in which computers and other devices are connected to the network via physical cables.
A network in which computers and other devices are connected to the network without physical cables
A location that provides wireless Internet access to the public
- A network that uses a host device connected directly to several other devices
- If the central device fails, the network cannot function
- A network that uses a central cable to which all network devices are attached
- If the bus line fails, the network cannot function since all data is transmitted down the bus line from one device to another.
- A network that uses multiple connections between network devices.
- used most often with wireless networks
- if one device on a mesh network fails, the network can still function (assuming an alternate path is available)
The way computers are designed to communicate
A network that includes both clients and servers
A computer or other device on a network that requests and uses network resources
A computer that is dedicated to processing client requests
To retrieve files from a server to a client
To transfer files from a client to a server
peer-to-peer (P2P) network
A network in which the computers on the network work at the same functional level, and users have direct access to the network devices
Personal area network (PAN)
A network that connects an individual's personal devices that are located close together
Local area network (LAN)
A network that connects devices located in a small geographical area
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
A network designed to service a metropolitan area
wide area network (WAN)
A network that connects devices located in a large geographical area
A private network that is set up similarly to the internet and is accessed via a Web browser
An intranet that is at least partially accessible to authorized outsiders
virtual private network (VPN)
A private, secure path over the internet used for accessing a private network
The amount of data that can be transferred in a given time period
A type of signal where the data is represented by 0s and 1s
A type of signal where the data is represented by continuous waves
A type of data transmission in which the bits in a byte travel down the same path one after the other
A type of data transmission in which bytes of data are transmitted at one time with the bits in each byte taking a separate path
A type of serial data transmission in which data is organized into groups or blocks of data that are transferred at regular, specified intervals
A type of serial data transmission in which data is sent when it is ready to be send without being synchronized
A type of serial data transmission in which data is sent at the same time as other related data
A type of data transmission in which data travels in a single direction only
A type of data transmission in which data can travel in either direction, but only in one direction at a time
A type of data transmission in which data can move in both directions at the same time
A method of transmitting data in which messages are separated into packets that travel along the network separately, and then are reassembled in the proper order at the destination
A method of transmitting data in which data is sent out to all nodes on a network and is retrieved only by the intended recipient.
A networking cable consisting of insulated wire strands twisted in sets of two and bound into a cable
coaxial cable (coax)
A networking cable consisting of a center wire inside a grounded, cylindrical shield, capable of sending data at high speeds
A networking cable that contains hundreds of thin transparent fibers over which lasers transmit data as light
- Short range - wireless keyboard or mouse to a computer
- Medium range - computer to a wireless LAN or public hotspot
- Long range - provides internet access to a large geographic area or to broadcast a TV show
cellular radio transmission
A type of data transmission used with cell phones in which the data is sent and received via cell towers
high-frequency radio signals that can send large quantities of data at high speeds over long distances
A device that sends and receives high-frequency, high-speed radio signals
A device that orbits the earth and relays communications signals over long distances
infrared (IR) transmission
A wireless networking medium that sends data as infrared light rays
A set of rules to be followed in a specific situation
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A networking protocol that uses packet switching to facilitate the transmission of messages; the protocol used with the Internet
The most widely used standard for wired networks
A widely used networking standard for medium-range wireless networks
An emerging wireless networking standard that is faster and has a greater range than Wi-Fi.
mobile WiMAX (802.16e)
A version of WiMAX designed to be used with mobile phones
- A networking standard for very short-range wireless connections
- 10 meters (approx 33 feet) or less
- works using radio signals in the frequency band of 2.4 GHz
- A Bluetooth network
- up to 10 individual Bluetooth networks
A wireless version of USB designed to connect peripheral devices
Ultra Wideband (UWB)
A networking standard for very short-range wireless connections among multimedia devices
An emerging wireless networking specification designed for connecting home consumer devicses
A networking standard for wireless connections between devices that are touching
A device used to connect a computer to a network
network interface card (NIC)
A network adapter in the form of an expansion card
A device that is used to connect a computer to a network over telephone lines
A device that connects multiple devices on a wired network and forwards data only to the intended recipient.
A device that connects multiple networks together and passes data to the intended recipient using the most efficient route
wireless access point
A device on a wireless network that connects wireless devices to that network
A router with a built-in wireless access point
A device used to connect two LANs
A device on a network that amplifies signals
A repeater for a wireless network
A device used for receiving or sending radio signals and often used to increase the range of a network